Bibliography of Kite Musical - / Aeolian Instruments

Good books are worth being watched by a Sphinx... (Schwetzingen-Castle/ Germany near Heidelberg)

Containing the best literature I found so far, the following bibliography is sorted by the author's names and will be completed continuously.

So, if you know some intersting articles/ books etc. not mentioned here , please MAIL them to me; THANK YOU for your help!

Please note: Most of the literature of this page is available by the German "Fernleihe-System" (Low cost! 2.-Euro per title/ whole book!! Siehe alle Bibliotheken Deutschlands mit Fernleihe Anschluß ) most of the libraries are connected to that system! If you want to locate some titles via WWW, the Karlsruhe Virtual Library Machine is highly recommended: for locating titles in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, France (BNP), England (British Virtual Library etc.) the USA (Library of Congress), etc.

Oder vun Woinemer fer Woinemer: DIE Quell' fer Lideradur: Unsere Stadtbibliothek Weinheim!!, der Nabel der Buchwelt in Woinem. Hier die online Fernleihbestellung der Stadtbibliotek Weinheim.

Part A: Aeolian Musical Instruments on flying (tethered) Kites Part B: other Aeolian Instruments powered by natural wind; Aeolian Harps/-flutes etc. Part C: things around kites, Bamboo, Papermaking, Ropemaking , Knots, Rosin etc. Only the best articles/ books I found so far with good, detailed descriptions etc., are listed here. Most modern/ old kite books contain passages with short descriptions of more or less simple kite musical instruments, mostly musical bows. Part A) ... musical instruments for either in or on kites or the kiteline; (go to top of the page)

A.B., et P...., Capitaine de l'artillerie à Toulouse
Les Cerfs Volants La Nature, Paris, 1887; pp.58-59 (see an ONLINE version!!)
(Description/ drawings of the russian rectangular kite with paper hummer and an "Annamite" (Kingdom of Annam; today a part of Vietnam) kite with a "mirliton"/ Kite flute, probably a "Cai-Sao")

Allègres et Mesle, Mmes.; et al.
Les Cerfs-Volants Siffleurs de Nantong
LELUCANE(Revue de Cerf-Volant Club de France) N°. 55, Janvier 1991; pp.11-25
(Very good and detailed article/ drawings in the French Kiter's Magazine on the Nantong Kite Whistles and the different sorts of Carrier-Kites; the best article I found so far.) Rédaction LE LUCANE / Eric Stempell:

L'Attaque et la Défense des Pigeons Messagers
In: La Nature. Revue des sciences et de leurs applications aux arts et à l'industrie. Suivi de : Bulletin météorologique de La Nature, Boîte aux lettres, Nouvelles scientifiques Editeur: Tissandier, Gaston, réd. en chef ; Parville, Henri de, dir. Volume 1889 : Dix-septième année, premier semestre; Adresse Paris : Masson, 1889 Collation; pp.338-339
(article on the defense of pigeons by means of pigeon whistles. See a local copy and a German translation or the online article)

Armengaud, Christine
Musiques Éoliennes
Manu Presse Dessain et Tolra, Paris, 8/1983 (out of print) (Beautifully made book in French on Aeolian Instruments
(text/ photos/ drawings) of all kinds, Kite Whistles, Pigeon Flutes, Humming Gourd Tops, Cai-Sao, Yao Ch'in, Èk and others. The "bible" as French "Aeolists" say...)

Aymonier, Etienne
Notes sur les coutumes et croyances superstitieuses des Cambodgiens
commenté et présenté par Saveros Pou Paris, (218 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005) Cedoreck, 1984, 116 pp.
(Only a few notes concerning kites; p.23 No.47 note about kite falling on roof; p.94 note No.48 sambuor fruit)

Balfour, Henry
The Goura and the Kite Bows in: The Goura, a Stringed Wind Musical Instrument of the Hottentots
The Journal ofthe Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland London, 1902; Vol.32; pp.170-173 and Plate VII, Pic. 5+6+7
(Discussion (text/ photos/ drawings) ofthe Cambodian Èk, Chinese Aeolian Lyre, Japanese Unari etc. in comparison with the African Goura (=Lesiba) , being also a flat stringed Musical Bow, sounded by the player blowing(!!) on the string. See two original texts on the "Goura" in English and one in old German)

In the following three articles on organ pipe acoustics:

Backus, J; Hundley, T.C. Wall vibrations in Flue Organ Pipes and their Effect on Tone Journal of the American Acoustical Society No.39; 1965; pp.936-945 Boner, C.P.; Newman, R.B. The Effect of Wall Materials on the Steady-State Acoustic Spectrum of Flue Pipes Journal of the American Acoustical Society No.12; 1940; pp.83-89 Coltman, J.W. Sound Radiation from the mouth of an Organ Pipe Journal of the American Acoustical Society No.46; 1969; p.477

Blanchère, H.;
Les Pigeons Messagers en Chine et en France
in: La Chasse Illustrée; Journal des Chasseurs et la Vie à la Campagne; Journal Hebdomadaire;
5° Année. N° 27, Samedi 6 Juillet 1872, pp.209 (image d‘un pigeon portant un sifflet), p.212, 213, 214; p.216 (un autre image des sifflets du pigeon messager) See a pdf version at
(article on the use of Pigeon Whistles and Pigeon mail in Prussian-Franch war 1870/71;
see a local copy (French)/ tranlation in German)

Buck, Peter Henry (Te Rangi Hiroa)
Kite Flying in: Arts and Crafts of the Cook Islands
Bernice P.Bishop Museum Bulletin 179, Honolulu, Hawaii; 1944; Kraus Reprint Co. New York; 1971; pp257-259
(Sounding kites =manu tangi on Aitutaki-Island. Paper Hummer on the front-string. Hexagonal kite.)

Buck, Peter Henry (Te Rangi Hiroa)
Kites, manu tukutuku;
pp. 331-335 Cords and Ropes; pp. 62-69
in: The Material Culture of the Cook-Islands (Aitutaki) Thomas Avery & sons, New Plymouth/ New Zealand, 1927;
(Article onropemaking etc.; article on the sounding kite of the Cook Islands with detailed description of the kite and its function)

Chanute, Octave
Progress in Flying Machines
Dover Publications, Mineola, New York; 1997 (Reprint of the original of 1894) pp.191-195
(Description of a Chinese musical kite; i.e.Cai-Sao or Dièu-Sao. It's the English translation of the Huchet article in "La Nature" of 1888, Vol.16; see below! See also Online Version!!))

Chapman, Paul A.
Dieu Sao; some preliminary notes on the Flute Kites of Vietnam A comprehensive study on Dieu Sao, the Vietnamese original flute kite dating from April 2011, when the authors made a journey in North Vietnam in research of this masterpiece of art, unique in the world. See the English version - hier die deutsche Übersetzung.

Chapman, Paul
Zhang Jian Quan; The last Pigeon Whistler of Old Beijing
Bob Books, Self-Publising Bookshop; ; No: 80 00852 39638 4; 39pp.
(A milieu study on Beijing Pigeon Whistle Sport and its conditions nowadays, dating from early 2000‘s until now, when the author made journeys in Beijing to find informations on Pigeon fanciers using whistles on birds..)

Chong Whye Keet
The Singing Kites of Kelantan In the (E-Zine) KiteLife Magazine, April 1998
(A beautiful article on the Kelantan musical kites)

Clark, Mitchell
Aeolian-Bow-Kites in China Experimental Musical Instruments (EMI); Nicasio, CA, USA
( Vol.14#3, March, 1999 (Best survey article on Chinese aeolian musical kite bows and their history. With a plan for making a chinese multi-string "Fengquin" kite bow)

Culin, Stewart
Games of the Orient
Charles E. Tuttle Company Rutland, Vermont; Tokyo, Japan; 1958,; pp.16-17
(Unari's on kites mentioned)

Fassio, Didier
A video-film Language: French Duration : 12 Minutes Réalisateur : Didier FASSIO Producteur : France 3 et France Image Production Distributed by: M. Poidvin/ Dieppe/F Par le passé, dès le mois de décembre, mois du vent, d'étranges cerfs-volants musicaux volaient dans le ciel cambodgien. Mais il y a 30 ans, la guerre éclate et les avions remplacent les cerfs-volants. Aujourd'hui, quelques hommes essaient de faire renaître la tradition des cerfs-volants chanteurs ... 26e Coupe Icare; 17e Festival International du Film de Vol Libre du 16 au 19 septembre 1999 à Saint-Hilaire du Touvet (Isère - France) Films en compétition.
(A very interesting, nicely made french film on making/ flying a singing Cambodian Èk-Musical Kite) Distributed by M.Poidvin Dieppe/ France. e-mail: fip.poidvin"at"

Flamant-Cuisinier, Jules(de Bailleul dep. Nord)
Sifflet de Pigeon en Chine
In: Le Magasin Pittoresque(Edouard Charton éditeur), Paris, quai des Grands Augustins,1880 (Année 48), p.288
(Good original article in French with German translation with b/w illustrations on the pigeon flutes as an anti-bird-of-prey instrument in Beijing/ China)

Gray, John Henry; Archdeacon of Hongkong.
A History of the Laws, Manners, and Customs of the People. Macmillan &Co., London; 1878, Vol.I, pp.269-270 (The only reference I know, where kite-instruments with metal strings are mentioned, see excerpt of the original text)

Ha Kuiming; Ha Yiqi
Chinese Artistic Kites
Commercial Press, Ltd., Hongkong; 1990 pp.34, 139,140
(Kite Book, pictures of Kite- and Pigeon-Whistles, in the book described as kite whistles)

Harmand, Jules
Sur Le Cerf-Volant Musical Du Cambodge
La Nature, Vol.9, Nr.404, 26.2.1881, pp.202-203
(Description of the "Ék" and the Carrier Kite, see citation of the original text. See also the Online version of La Nature!)

Hoose, Harned Pettus
Peking Pigeons and Pigeon-Flutes
Peking, 1938 (28 pages) Lecture delivered 1938 at the "College of Chinese Studies at the California College in China at Peking" (Really a pleasure to read it describes the way of pigeon breeding in China and a detailed description of the pigeon flute manufacturing process, read excerpts of the lecture and a whole copy)

Huchet, Monsieur (Christian name unknown)
Les Cerfs-Volants Chinois
La Nature, 1888, Vol.16 (pt1), pp.44ff
(Article on the chinese "original kite" and the cai-sao kite flute with steel engravations, see excerpt of the text with pictures)See Online version of La Nature!!

Kurz, Sulpiz
Bamboo and its use
Indian Forester. Vol.I, No.3; January 1876 ; pp.219-269 (specially 234+235)
(Kite whistle Cai-sao mentioned on a long tailed kite; also "aeolian organs"or the famous "Weeping Bamboo" consisting of whole, green, still living bamboo culms with longitudinal slits in the internodes)

Laufer, Berthold
Chinese Pigeon Whistles
Scientific American, 1908, p. 394ff;
(Article/ description of Pigeon Whistles with photo of the tools etc.) Chinese Pigeon Whistles a copy of the text, which appeared in the "National Geographic" magazine in June 1913.

Laufer, Berthold
Guide to the Exhibition of the Chinese Collections; American Museum of Natural History.
Miscellaneous objects. Case 16. Editor: Hartmut Walravens; C.Bell Verlag, Berlin, 1991. pp.99-100.
(Pigeon Whistle collection of the AMNH in Chicago. It's the other part of the Howe Homestead Collection in Walnut Creek, CA, USA . See an excerpt of that guide for the Chinese Collections of the AMNH.)

Laufer, Berthold (Curator of Anthropology of the AMNH)
The Prehistory of Aviation - /kites as precursors of aeroplanes American Field Museum of Natural History, Publication 253; Anthropological Series Vol.XVIII, No.1 Chicago,1928 (by Field Museum Press); pp.33 (Musical Kite), 72+73
(Pigeon Whistles)

Lecornu, Joseph
Les Cerfs-Volants
Librairie Nony&Cie., Paris; 1902; pp. 50, 84, 89, 93, 94
(Different kite bow hummers, kite flutes and mirlitons mentioned)

Mahillon, Victor Charles
Catalogue Descriptif et Analytique du Musée Instrumental du Conservatoire Royal de Musique de Bruxelles
1833-1922 Bruxelles, 1978, Vol.3, pp.310-311
(Description/ tuning of the "Cai-Sao" in the catalog of the Instrumental Museum of the Royal Conservatory of Brussels/ Belgium) See German translation of the (French original) text.

Malagoli Giuseppe
Colombaie militari - Esperimenti di viaggi di andata e ritorno e di fischietti chinesi contro gli uccelli di rapina
Casa editrice: Roma Voghera Carlo; 1889; 17pp. in: Rivista Mialitare Italiana; Roma; 1859-1933
(Excerpt from Rivista Militare Italiana on experiments with Chinese pigeon whistles against birds of prey) Also interesting experiments with whistles and other trials of repelling birds of prey in:

Martin, Dr. Ern.
Les Pigeons Eoliens De Pékin
In: La Nature, Revue des sciences et de leurs applications aux arts et à l'industrie. Suivi de : Bulletin météorologique de La Nature, Boîte aux lettres, Nouvelles scientifiques Paris, Decembre 1893, premier semestre, vingt-et-uneieme année, edit. Masson, Paris, Vol. 1018, pp.29-30 (see online article or a local copy on chinese pigeon flutes with beautiful steel engravings showing two whistles and a flute-carrying pigeon)

Moule, Arthur Christopher (B.A)
A List of the Musical and other Sound Producing Instruments of the Chinese
Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society Kelly & Walsh Limited, Shanghai, Hongkong, Yokohama & Singapore (Leipzig: O. Harrassowitz), 1908
(Descriptions and pictures of Pigeon whistle/ Kite Whistles and the Yao-Ch'in kite harp)

Le Cerf-Volant à Musique au Tonking
In: La Nature, Paris, Fevrier 1890, pp.179-180
(The article describes the custom of flying musical kites by night in Annam (Vietnam), with a nice b/w picture; a woodcut??)See Online version of La Nature!!

Pigeon Whistles
In: Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Museum, Published by: Philadelphia Museum of Art; Vol. 3, No. 12 (Oct., 1905), pp. 77-78 See a local copy here and a digitalized version at

Les Pigeons Voyageurs
In: : Le Magasin Pittoresque(Edouard Charton éditeur), Paris, quai des Grands Augustins, 1873 (Année 41) pp.364-365
(Articlewith b/w illustrations on homing pigeons and pigeon flutes as a sport in China)

Chinese Pigeon Flutes
In: The Illustrated London News, Elm House, London, 1909, Vol. 134 p.23 (z.B. ULB Darmstadt, Sigel Za 72)
(Article on Pigeon Flutes)

Needham, Joseph
Science and Civilisation in China
Cambridge At The University Press, 1965; Vol.4, Pt.2; pp. 576-578
(Invention of kites and musical instruments for kites in general, detailed Chinese-/ Japanese- and Western bibliography)

Jeux de Cerfs-Volants
in: Activités de la Société Enfantine Annamite du Tonkin BIEH, Institut Indochinois pour l'Étude de l'Homme. 1943. Tome 6, pp.114-119 et 94, 95 (pl.VI+VII) Title of the reprint: "Jeux d'Enfants du Vietnam", Edition Sudestasie, Paris, 1985
(Toys of the Children in Vietnam; Dieu-Vang kite (good texts, drawings) Cai Sao kite flute and others) See German translation of the orig. French text (excerpt)

Porée-Maspero, Eveline
Le Cerf-Volant
in: Étude sur les Rites Agraires des Cambodgiens
Mouton&Co., Paris, La Haye, 1964; Tome II, pp.479-569 (The book describes the Ritual use and the very detailed description of Kites/ Instruments/ kite-culture etc. of Cambodia and surrounding countries like China, Vietnam, Siam and Indonesia; Èk, Kite Flutes, chinese lantern kites (!) / i.e. real montgolfières (!) etc.) MCC-material (property of the "Commission des Moeurs et Coutumes du Cambodge") older than 1951 was copied on microfilm and is located at the "La Société Asiatique" in Paris. See complete work of Evelyne Poree Maspero:

Porée-Maspero, Eveline; l'Achar CHAP-PIN; Mmes PICH-SAL et CHHAM-CHHOM; MM. CHEK-PRAK, CHAU-TUCH et LUY SIEN; Dessins de SREY-CHUON
Cerfs-Volants in: Cérémonies des Douze Mois, fêtes anuelles Cambodgiennes Institut Bouddhique - Commission des Mœurs et Coutumes, Phnom Penh : Albert Portail, 1949, 84 pages, pp.69-71
(on the musical kite of Cambodia and its meaning in agricultural rites)

Sheppard, Mubin; Taman, Indera
A Royal Pleasure Ground. Malay Decorative Arts and Pastimes.
Chapter 13: "Kites and Kite-Flying" Oxford University Press; Kuala Lumpur; 1972; pp.171-179
(Description of the Kelantan (Indonesia) "Wau kite family" and their sound producing kite bows. Description of the special plants (leaves, bamboo sorts , rattan with botanic names) needed for the construction)

Sim Sarak; Cheang Yarin
Khmer Kites
Kingdom of Cambodia, Ministery of Culture and Fine Arts; Department of Cultural Development, Preliminary edition 1999, 29 pages; second edition 2002, 56 pages. See the online-version of this book... The printed version is available directly from Mr. Sim Sarak ( simsarak"AT" )
(Description of the different forms of Cambodian kites, the Ek Phnorng musical kite and its history, religious background, some nice stories around, presentation of kitemakers etc., best work on Khmer kites I actually know! Cambodian people lost most of their written material in the civil war. So, this booklet is one of the rare sources...e-mail address (please replace the "at" by @) of Mr. Sim Sarak: simsarak"at"

Straub, Virginia
Mid-Sky Charming Girls; aerial music from flutes attached to the tails of pigeons used to delight the Chinese
American Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago), Bulletin Nov. 1971, Vol. 42#10. pp.13-15
(Best survey-article on pigeon whistles. See online text version here)

Tissandier, G.
Les Cerfs-Volants des Chinois
La Nature, 1888; Vol.16, Pt.1, pp.44-46 Drawing of "Dieu-Vang" with a "Cai-Sao" and description; the same article appeared in the Scientific American under the title "Progress in Flying Machines: Aeroplanes" in June 1893. See English translationand German translation of the French text.See Online version of La Nature!! Trần Ngọc Tuấn Lế hội thả diều truyền thống làng Bá Giang – Luận văn Thạc sĩ khoa học – Viện gnhieen cứu văn hóa – 2004.
(Scientific thesis on the traditional kite festival of Ba Giang village in Vietnam)

Tun Li-Ch'en; Bodde Derk (Translator)
Annual Customs and Festivals in Peking
as reorded in the Yen-ching Sui-shih-chi by Tun Li-Ch'en; translated and annotated by Derk Bodde Henry Vetch, Peiping; Verlag Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig/ Germany, 1936
(pp.21-22 pigeon flutes mentioned with two drawings; p.77 kiteflying)

Wang, Hongxun
Die Kunst des Drachenbaus
Verlag für fremdsprachige Literatur, Beijing, 1989; pp.34, 52 (Picture Part) the above book is also available in English under the title: Chinese Kites Traditional Chinese Arts & Culture Series Foreign Language Press; Beijing; 1989.
(Text and pictures on kite instruments, kite whistles etc.)

Wang, Shih-Hsiang (= Wang, Shixiang)
Pigeon Whistles Make Aerial Orchestra
China Reconstructs, 12 (Nr.11), Nov.1963, pp. 42- 43
(Article on historic and modern aspects of Pigeon Whistles in China)

Wang, Shih-Hsiang (= Wang, Shixiang)
On Pigeon Whistling
in: PCF (Prince Claus Fund) Journal 10a; pp. 14-27; by Prince Claus Fund for Culture and Development; Hoge Nieuwstraat 30, 2514 EL Den Haag, Netherlands (2003?)
(Article by Wang Chixiang on the essentials of Pigeon Flutes. See online article)

Wang, Shixiang
Beijing Pigeon Whistles
Beijing, Liaoning Education Press; China; 1999; ISBN: 7-5382-5636-9
(Very detailed book in Chinese/ English on the beautiful pigeon whistles from Beijing)

Watlington, Frank
Bermuda Kites - How to make and how to fly them
Island Press , 1979
(Bermuda-Kite with its Hummer)

Wendell Mitchell Levi et al.
The Pigeon
Levi Publishing Co.; Sumter, S.C., 1981; pp602-603
(on Pigeon Bells and -Flutes)

Whitehurst, Robert
My Red River Delta Kite Day
in: Discourse from the end of the line Drachen Foundation, Administrative Offices 3131 Western Avenue, M321 Seattle, WA 98121-3035 Vol.1, No.4, Issue April 2009; pp. 29-32
(Nice article on a journey to Hanoi looking for kite flutes)

Widess, Jim; Summit, Ginger
Making Gourd Musical Instruments
Sterling Publishing House Co., Inc.; New York, 1999; ISBN 0-8069-1369-X; 144pp. (pp127-132 on Aeolian Instruments, very good book on musical instrument made from gourds or using them as resonator-bodies. A lot of fine pictures and detailed instructions how to make these instruments) Compact Disk available: Gourd Musical Instruments CD (#02405)- 73 minutes (45 tracks) of melodic and rhythmic music illustrating 40 instruments described in the book. Address: The Caning Shop; 926 Gilman Street, Berkeley, CA 94710 USA. Fax: 1-510-527-7718 See a description of book and CD at

Widess, Jim; Summit, Ginger
Gourd Musical Instruments/ WITH CD!!
86 pages, DIN A6 hardcover, Published by the Caning Shop, 926 Gilman Street, Berkeley, CA 94710-1494 USA; ISBN 0-9700338-0X; e-mail:
(Describes in text, picture and tone 45 different musical instruments made from gourds; including pigeon flutes and kite flutes (pp44-47, CD-tracks 22-24).

Woglom, Gilbert Totten
Parakites -A Treatise on the Making and Flying of Tailless Kites for Scientific Purposes and for Recreation-
G.P.Putnam's Sons, New York, London; 1896; p.6
(description of sheet-brass and whale's beard for musical strings on square framed kites, the "strings" being strung across the transverse bowed sticks)

Wong Audiovisual Center of the University of Hawaii in the Manoa Library (Location map with opening hours) The video film shows how the carrier kite "Klèn" or "Klaing" and its musical bow "Èk" or "Aik" is made and flown.
The Khlaing Aik Musical Kite of Cambodia (02261775) Physical: Color; Sound Produced: 1987 Length: 9:00 min. Distributor : Ann Bartholomew (0760) Synopsis: Shows how the kite is made and flown by Cambodian refugees living in Lowell, Massachusetts, USA. (I couldn't get that video-tape yet. If someone has the possibility to give me more informations where this video can be purchased, I'd be very happy!) Back to the TOP OF THE PAGE

Part B)... aeolian Harpsand other aeolian instruments etc. in general (to top of the page)

Adelung, Wolfgang
Einführung in den Orgelbau
2. überarbeitete Auflage, Breitkopf & Härtel, Wiesbaden, Leipzig, Paris, 1991 (242pp, b/w drawings/ photos)
(Excellent book on the basics of organ building, organ acoustic, different flutes types, materials, tuning etc.; see also Lottermoser)

Adelung, Wolfgang
Die Herstellung von Orgelpfeifen aus Karton
Ars organi ; internationale Zeitschrift für das Orgelwesen; hrsg. von der Gesellschaft der Orgelfreunde e.V.; Mettlach,Band 25 (1965), pp.826-831
(Text on the manufacturing of organ pipes from cardboard)

Adler, B.
Pfeifende Pfeile und Pfeilspitzen in Sibirien.
In: Globus. Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Länder- und Völkerkunde (Braunschweig), 6.Febr., 1902, pp. 94-96
(On whistling arrows in Siberia)

AP. (Associated Press Artikel)
Sport of Pigeon Whistling Is Revived by Californian
in: "Reading Eagle"; No. 247; 1.Oct. 1961, p58. See here.
(nice article on the sport of pigeon whistling; on Mr. Jim Howe (James Pomeroy howe; Howe Homestead and his passion of flying pigeon whistles)

Armengaud, Christine
Musiques vertes.
3. éd. revue et augmentée; Christine Bonneton Éditeur, 21, bd Maréchal-Fayolle, 43000 Le Puy;1984. - 127 pp. : Ill.(Vivre les traditions) Former edition under the title: Armengaud, Christine: La Musique Verte ISBN 2-86253-044-1
(Comprehensive book on all (!) aspects of making on everything mother nature can offer. Did you ever whistle on blades of grass, on stones...or acorn-"hats"?)

Bandt, Ros
Taming the Wind: Aeolian Sound Practices in Austral-Asia
(Nice article on aeolian sound experiments in Australia)

The Pigeons of the Whistling Tails - Melody Produced By Flight: Chinese Pigeon-Whistles In Use.
In: The Illustrated London News; Jan.2, Elm House, London; 1909, Vol. 134 p.23
(DIN A3 page with b/w photographs of two carrier pigeons with pigeon flutes on its tails, also photos of different flutes, the tools and the materials used. No text.)

Belval, Challan de
Au Tonkin
A.Delahaye et E. Lecrosnier, Éditeurs; Paris; 1886; pp.15-26
(Aeolian flutes in bamboo hedges around villages and the same flutes on flying kites mentioned. See a digitalized version)

Bernard, Daniel
L'Homme et le Loup
Berger-Levrault, 1981; St.Germain, F-75007 Paris; ISBN 2-7013-0456-3; p.96 Deutsche Ausgabe: Wolf und Mensch SDV; Saarbrücker Druckerei und Verlag GmbH, Saarbrücken 1983; ISBN 3-921646-63-4; Seite 96.
(Interesting written and illustrated book of 144 pages on the wolf and man. Picture of a "wolf-tile" origin of France. Don't know actually, whether it has been translated in English. Somebody, who knows it?)

Berettari, Gaetano
Trasunto dell'Osservationi Armonico-meteorologiche fatte dall' Ab. GAETANO BERRETTARI in Pistoia
Communicato per lettera al Prof. L. BRUGNATELLI dal Citt.G. CARRADORI di Prato. Annali di Chimica e Storia Naturale; ovvero raccolta di memorie sulle scienze arti e manifatture ad esse relative di L. BRIGNATELLI. Pavia, Italy, Nella stamperia Bolzani; 1800; Tomo XVIII; pp. 56-62.
(Letter on another early aeolian/ meteorologic experiments on long, tightened iron wires. See original text in Italian language)

Bernoulli, Jacques (Johann)
Extraits de sa Correspondance sur la Physique.
(Lettres de MM. Toaldo et Jacques Bernoulli) in: Nouveaux Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres. Année 1781;publ. Georges Jacques Decker; Berlin, 1783 ; p.26 (see original page in an online version)
(Letter of Johann Bernoulli communicating the discovery of sounding wires to the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin; see a local transcription)

Bertuch, J.
Die Äolsharfe
in: Journal des Luxus und der Moden Herausgegeben von J.Bertuch und G.M.Kraus 14. Band, Jahrgang 1799; Weimar, In Verlag des Industrie=Comptoirs; pp. 150-155 und Tafel 9 Fig4.
(nice letter on the use of the aeolian harp to a lady living in a castle with english garden...)

Billert, Karl Friedrich August
Aeolsharfe, die oder Windharfe
in: Musikalisches Conversations-Lexikon; eine Encyklopädie der gesammten musikalischen Wissenschaften. Für Gebildete aller Stände, unter Mitwirkung der literarischen Commission des Berliner Tonkünstlervereins (...) Musical Dictionary by Mendel, Hermann, 1834-1876; and Reissmann, August, 1825-1903 Published in Berlin/ Germany by Mendel, Hermann; 1870; Verlag von L.Heimann, Wilhelmstrasse 91; New-York, J.Schuberth & Co.; 820 Broadway; pp. 60-62
(Good overview-article on the aeolian harp and its "state of the art"; see a typed copy; see online version)

Blackwood, Beatrice
The Technology of Modern Stone Age People in New Guinea.
Oxford, 1950; Pitt Rivers Museum. Occasional Papers on technology.
(Contains a description of "bamboo organs"; bamboos with slits in the internodes acting as aeolian flutes)

Blume, Friedrich; Bröcker Marianne
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart; allgemeine Enzyklopädie der Musik
21 Bände in zwei Teilen / begr. von Friedrich Blume. 2., neubearb. Ausg. / hrsg. von Ludwig Finscher. - 19XX, Kassel ; Basel ; London ; New York ; Prag : Bärenreiter; Stuttgart ; Weimar : Metzler Stichwort Äolsharfe; pp. 671-676; siehe Probeartikel "Äolsharfe"
(Detailed, good survey article in German with 8 b/w pictures of aeolian harps)

Bogue, David
Anecdotes of the electric telegraph
Cover title: 'The London anecdotes for all readers. The electric telegraph; Preface dated: London, April 25, 1848. Printer's name from colophon Series: The London anecdotes; W. Tegg and co.; London; 1848; 128pp.,plate: 14cm
(contains the believe, that aeolian tones in wires were caused by telegrams passing the telegraph lines...)

Aeolian Harp (Bonner, Stephen; Series Editor) (out of print!)

    Mansfield, Jonathan Volume I : The Design and Construction of an Aeolian Harp Bois de Boulogne, 59 Moorfield Road, Duxford; Cambridge, England; 1970

    Bonner, Stephen Volume II : The History and Organology of the Aeolian Harp Part 1: Text; Part 2: Folio of Illustrations Bois de Boulogne, 59 Moorfield Road, Duxford; Cambridge, England; 1970

    Brown, Andrew Volume III : The Aeolian Harp in Literature 1591-1892 with additional material by Nicholas Boyle Bois de Boulogne, 59 Moorfield Road, Duxford; Cambridge, England; 1970

    Webster, Adrian and Bonner, Stephen Volume IV : The Acoustics of the Aeolian Harp Bois de Boulogne, 59 Moorfield Road, Duxford; Cambridge, England; 1970

Borie, H., (missionaire apostolique) ["Borie (transl. by the Père Bourien)"]
Notice sur les Mantras, tribu sauvage de la Peninsule Malaise.
Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, 1861; Deel X p.425. (See excerpt of the original text in french) or the same article translated (unsatisfactory!) into english by the Père Bourien: "On the Wild Tribes of the Interior of the Malay Peninsula." in an article of M.Bourien - Wild Tribes of the Malay Peninsula Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, 1887, N.S. vol. III, part VIII, pp.72 seqq.; p. 79 and

Borie, H.
An Account of the Mantras, a savage tribe in the Malay Peninsula.
Miscellaneous Essays relating to Indo-China. London, 1887, second series, vol. I; pp. 293-294
(Description of the Bamboo Aeolian Organ and its use on the Malayan Pensinula)

Bormann, Karl
Heimorgelbau. Eine Anleitung zum Selbstbau von mechanischen Pfeifenorgeln und selbstspielenden Flötenwerken für das Heim.
[39. Veröffentlichung der Gesellschaft der Orgelfreunde] 4. Aufl., Berlin: Merseburger Verlag, 1986; 184 pages
(Nice book on self-building of home-organs, containing an article on pipes made from cardboard)

Bruckmann, D.
Von einem selbst musicirenden Nacht-Instrument (anno 1726)
In: Sammlung von Natur- und Medicin- wie auch hierzu gehörigen Kunst- und Literatur-Geschichten so sich von 1717-26 in Schlesien und anderen Orten begeben (... ) und als Versuch ans Licht gestellet Hrsg: Kanold, Johannes; Erfurt/ Germany, Jungnicol-Verlag; journal published from 1.1717(1718) to 38.1726(1730) Johann Kanold was born the 15.12.1679 in Breslau (Poland) and died there 175 years before in the age of almost 60 at 15.11.1729. Kanold was a physician, collecting weather observations from whole Europe together with two collegue from 1717-1726, publising the observations in his „Sammlung von Natur- und Medicin- wie auch hiezu gehörige Kunst- und Literatur-Geschichten...“ (Collection of Nature- and Medicine- as also relating stories of Art and Litterature... ) Note: in those times the word "Kunst" was meant as cultural/ technical progress; such as machines, processing etc.
(Article on the Aeolian Harp as a self-sounding night-instrument. See original text.)

Bumiller, Matthias; Wolff, Nathalie
Luftmusik: über die Äolsharfe
mit einer CD, auf der Originalklänge einer Äolsharfe sowie Lieder von Johannes Brahms ("An eine Äolsharfe"), Max Reger ("Äolsharfe") und Hugo Wolf ("An eine Äolsharfe") in der Interpretation von Györgyi Dombrádi (Mezzosopran) und Lambert Bumiller (Klavier) zu hören sind. Schriftenreihe: Edition solitude, Akademie Schloß Solitude; Stuttgart; 2004; 48pp., ISBN 3-929085-92-5
(Schönes Büchlein mit allerlei um die Äolsharfe und um die Geschichte der Weinsberger Windharfen...)

Burchell, William John
Travels in the Interior of South Africa, 1810-1812
London, 1822, i, p458 and coloured plate. The locality was Klaarwater, c.29°S. 24°E. in the Koranna region Also in: Henry Balfour, M.A., F.Z.S "The Goura, a Stringed-Wind Musical Instrument of the Bushmen and Hottentots." The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. XXXII, London 1902; p162
(another description of the properties of the Goura.
See originaltext.)

Chanaud, R.C.
Effects Of Geometry On The Resonance Frequency Of Helmholtz Resonators
Journal of Sound and Vibration; Volume 178, Issue 3 , Academic Press, 1 December 1994, pp. 337-348
(Article on the limits of different Helmholtz equations concerning different shapes of soundholes and its position)

Chauvet, Stephen Charles
Musique Nègre
Considérations, technique, instruments de musique, recueil de 118 airs notés Société d'Éditions Géographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales; Paris, 1929, p.162 (242pages)
(Description of the playing position of Goura/ Lesiba-player)

Nachricht von dem Schnellschen Animo-Corde
in: Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung. Breitkopf und Härtel, Leipzig; 3/ October 1798;(Intelligenzblatt zur Allgemeinen Musikalischen Zeitung); pp.39-44. (Article on the "Anemochord", see a transcription, an instrument working after the aeolian harp principle with a keyborard like a piano)

Codrington, R.H.
The Melanesians
Oxford, 1891
("Bamboo organs", i.e. bamboo with slits in the internodes acting as aeolian flutes)

Crawford, Frank.S.
Singing Corrugated Tubes
American Journal of Physics; AAPT, College Park, Md., Vol.42/ 4; 1974; pp.278-288
(on "whirlies", sound generation in corrugated tubes)

D'Angelo, Paolo
Arpa Eolia
(A most comprehensive online-article on the Aeolian Harp in Italian language. Recommended!)

Dalberg, Johann Friedrich Hugo Nepomuk Eckenbert
(*17. Mai 1760 in Mainz, †26. Juli 1812 in Aschaffenburg, Schriftsteller, Komponist, Domkapitular von Trier, Worms und Speyer.)
Die Aeolsharfe. Ein allegorischer Traum.
Beyer und Maring; Erfurt/ Germany; 1801; 72 pp. (see an online copy)
(Little work on the aeolian harp and its use including a nice allegoric dream; in German)

Dearstyne, Howard
Material Compiled on the Subject of the Aeolian Harp from Various Sources
Williamsburg; USA, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Inc., 1954
(didn't read this yet. Anyone who could make/ send me a copy, please?)

Deubelli, Reinhold
in: GEFLÜGEL-BÖRSE; Verlag Jürgens GmbH, Industriestr. 13; 82110 Germering; 128. Jahrgang; 20/2007; pp.16-17. (See this recommended article (to on actual pigeon-whistle-flying in Germany, suitable pigeons, fastening of the whistles and treating/ training of pigeons) and
Gauggel, Karl-Otto
Faszinierende Kunstflugtauben
in: Geflügelzeitung No. 18; 2008; pp.20-21
(Article on Reinhold Deubelli's whistle and bell flights with pigeons.)

Diederichs, Ulf; Hinze, Christa
Hessische Sagen
Eugen Didierichs Verlag, Düsseldorf, Köln; 1978, p.112-113
("Der hessische Blocksberg"), p.330 ("Der Rodensteiner") ( examples of ultrasounds in old tales...)

Doherty, Paul
Sounds Like Fun
An invited presentation at the annual AAAS meeting, San Francisco, 2001
(on "whirlies", sound generation in corrugated tubes; see online article at

Doize; Renée Louise
Sifflets Ardennais en Pierre
in: Bulletin de la Société Royale Belge d'Anthropologie et de Préhistoire / publ. avec le concours de la Fondation Universitaire de Belgique et du Ministère de l'Instruction Publique. - Bruxelles, 1938, Vol. 53; pp.177-178
(nice article on handcarved (!) whistles made of stone, its production and former use in eastern part of Belgium (see a copy))

Engel, Carl
Aeolian Music
in: The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular
Musical Times Publisher, London
Aeolian Music --- in vol.23, No. 474, August 1882; pp.432-436
and the article continued:
Our Aeolian Harp --- in vol.23, No. 475, September 1882; pp479-483 1882; pp.479-483
(Good, interesting overwiew article in two parts on wind-sounded „aeolian“ instruments/ things, state of the art in 1882)

Eustathius from Thessaloniki
Commentary of the Odyssee by Homer
Εὐσταθίου μαίστορος τῶν ῥητόρων, τοῦ ὕστερον θεσσαλονίκης παρεκβολαὶ τῶν εἰς τὴν Ὀδύσσειαν G. Stallbaum, Eustathii archiepiscopi Thessalonicensis commentarii ad Homeri Odysseam; Weigel; Leipzig, , 1825-1826; digitalized see
(unfortunately I don't speak Greece... so I'm not able to discover, WHERE??? Eustathius mentionned instruments singing when their tight stings are exposed to the wind - please feel free to tell me when YOU found the page... thanks!!)

Ferment, Didier
Les "Flutabulles"
(A text in French, describing his nice, simple and effective aeolian flutes made of plastic bottles.)

Ferment, Didier; Tondellier, Bruno; Wahl, Uli
Musiques du vent
(see the book's description) (book in French/ German edition with CD covering the history of instruments powered by the natural wind, many construction plans of instruments easy to make. The CD contains a spoken description of history and present of aeolian instruments, some nice children's songs describing traditional windpowered instruments like sounding windmills of Portugal and the sounding "wolf tile" of France etc. Also there are some modern musical compositions made by aeolian instruments. Descriptions and ectracts see

Firth; Ian, M. (Dep. of Physics, Univ. of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS, Scotland; GB)
Primitive Musical Instruments using Helmholtz Resonators.
J.Acoust. Soc. Am. Suppl. 1, Vol.80, Fall 1986 S101; (didn't get and read this article until now...)
(Paper at the 112th. meeting of the Acoustical Sociuety of America; containing a description of Chinese pigeon flutes.)

Fischer, Hans
Schallgeräte in Ozeanien Aeolsflöten
Bau und Spieltechnik - Verbreitung und Funktion Éditions P.H.Heitz/ Verlag Heitz GmbH., Strasbourg, Baden-Baden,; 1958; p.53
(Aeolian flutes mentioned, made of bamboo tubes, with slits carved into the internodes. No pictures.)

Gattoni, Giulio Cesare
Lettura DEL SIG. Abbate Don Giulio Cesare Gattoni Canonico della Cattedrale di Como AL CH. SIG. Don Pietro Moscari (...) sopra una nuova maniera di scoprire i più piccoli cambiamenti nell'Atomsfera con un apparato infinamente più sensibile degli altri fino ad ora conosciuti.
in: C. Amoretti/ G.F. Soave Opuscoli Scelti Sulle Scienze E Sulle Arti: Tratti dagli Atti delle Accademie, e dalle altre Collezioni Filosofiche, e Letterarie, dalle Opere più recenti Inglesi, Tedesche, Francesi, Latine, e Italiane, e da Manoscritti originali, e inediti. Milano : Vol. 8, Marelli [et al.] Milano/ Italy; 1785; pp.298-309
(Letter of 16.9.1785 with complete description of the"Armonica Meteorologica naturale", "Meteorologische Harfe", "Giant Harp" Riesenharfe or "Weather Harp" Wetterharfe, the giant aeolian harp with wires of different diameters of 100m length in attempt to construct an meteorological apparatus to make better weather predictions...) See original text in Italian and German translation see too:

Laboratorio Gattoni: un gabinetto di scienze del 18° secolo per la didattica di oggi,
Como: Centro di cultura scientifica “A.Volta”, 2000.

Gehler; Johann Samuel Traugott
in: Gehler's Physicalisches Wörterbuch Brandes, Gmelin, Horner, Muncke, Pfaff Leipzig, 1825-1845
(Physical Dictionary; an article explaining the "weather- or giant-(aeolian-)harp)

Gehler; Johann Samuel Traugott
in: Gehler's Physicalisches Wörterbuch Brandes, Gmelin, Horner, Muncke, Pfaff Leipzig, 1825-1845, pp.208ff. (Physical Dictionary; an article explaining the "Aeolian Harp")

Goebel, Joseph (Orgelbaumeister)
Theorie und Praxis des Orgelpfeifenklanges
Intonieren und Stimmen Ein Handbuch für Orgelbauer und Organisten Schriftenreihe 'Das Musikinstrument', Heft 9. Verlag Das Musikinstrument; Frankfurt/ Main Germany; 1967
(book on tuning and 'intonation' of organ pipes)

Griaule, Marcel
Jeux et Divertissements Abyssins
Bibliothèque de l'École des Hautes Études; Sciences religieuses. Librairie Ernest Leroux, Paris, 1935; XLIXe Volume, p.28, plates V et VI. Original texts were published in German translation by M. Mittwoch in "Mitteilungen des Seminars für Orientalische Sprachen" unter dem Titel "Abessinische Kinderspiele", in Band XIII, Abt.II, Berlin 1910
(Description of an Aeolian Zither entirely made of bamboo used as a children's toy in Ethiopia/ Africa)

Guichané, Raoul
La Musique et les Moulins à Vent du Portugal
Voyage de la Fédération Francaise des Amis des Moulins (FFAM) au Portugal, 6-9 Octobre 1995; p.13
(Description of the tuning of the windmill-hummers at the EVORA museum in Portugal. The method/ formula of calculating the sound-vessel's pitches seems to be incorrect in the article. A better approximation would be the Helmholtz formula; see formula.)

Hall, Donald, E.
Musikalische Akustik; ein Handbuch
Schott Verlag; Mainz, 1997; 512 Seiten; aus dem Amerikanischen von Thomas A. Troge Originaltitel: "Musical Acoustics" publ: Brooks/ Cole Publishing Company; Pacific Grove, California, USA; 1991.
(comprehensive book on musical acoustics)

Hankins, Thomas Leroy ; Silverman, Robert J.
"The Aeolian Harp and the Romantic Quest of Nature."
in: Instruments and the Imagination Princeton, N.J. : Princeton Univ. Press, 1995, pp.86-113 (see google books)
(Good overview on the Aeolian Harps's history, its meaning for early Physics/ Acoustic, Philosophy and Romantic Literature)

Harsdörffer; Georg Philipp
Den Wind ohne Zuthun Wasser noch Räder/ noch Bälge musiciren machen
in: Delitiae Mathematicae Et Physicae:Der Mathematischen und Philosophischen Erquickstunden Zweyter Theil / Bestehend in Fünffhundert nutzlichen und lustigen Kunstfragen/ nachsinnigen Aufgaben/ und deroselben grundrichtichen Erklärungen/ Auß Athanasio Kirchero, Petro Bettino, Marino Mersennio, Renato des Cartes, Oron.../ . - [Electronic ed.]. - Nürnberg : Dümler, 1651 Permalink:

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von
Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen als Physiologische Grundlage für die Theorie der Musik
Verlag von Friederich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig; 1863 Friederich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig; 1913 6.Ausgabe (pp. 71,-73 Resonators; pp.600-603 formulas for resonators) See the original German online-book, a scan of the complete book in *.pdf format:
(Good scientific book on acoustics, explaining details on combination tones, interference tones etc. English translation exists)

Hofmann, Johann Jacob (1635 to 1706) article:
Aeolium Instrumentum
in: Lexicon Universale, Historiam Sacram et Profanam Omnis aevi, omniumque Gentium; Chronologiam Ad Haec Usque Tempora; (...) Leiden: Jacob. Hackius, Cornel. Boutesteyn, Petr. Vander Aa, & Jord. Luchtmans, 1698. - Vol. 1: Literas A, B, C, continens. [6] Bl., 1072 pp.; Kupfertit. - Vol. 2: Literas D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, continens. [1] Bl., 900 pp. - Vol3: Literas M, N, O, P, Q, continens. [1] Bl., 994 pp. - Vol. 4: Literas R, S, T, V, X, Y, Z, continens. [1] Bl., CXXVI, 743, 116 pp
(First mentioning of the name "Aeolian Harp" for the Windharp. Text in Latin. See a local copy of the text or a facsimile version (title) of the original)

Howe, James Pomeroy
United States / China Radio broadcast on homing pigeons with Chinese pigeon flutes...
...including commentary by James Pomeroy Howe, recorded at Walnut Creek, California, USA by NBC Radio Network
Productions, Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology; Sound Recordings: Tapes 1955; Accession No.: 2640

Jones William, F.R.S.
Physiological Disquisitions; or, Discourses On The Natural Philosophy Of The Elements Part VI. On Sound And Music. London : Rivington ; London : Robinson ; Oxford : Prince ; Cambridge : Merrils ; Colchester : Keymer; 1781; pp.338-345; plus plate IV.
(nice article on the aeolian harp, theory of "Acoustic Prism" in analogy of the optical prism...; see copy of the original text)

Justinus-Kerner-Vereinund Frauen-Verein e.V. Ein Steinernes Album; Namen und Inschriften auf der Burg Weibertreu Druck und Verlag von G.Kohler, Weinsberg 1886, 1.Auflage (15 pages) (Little booklet by the J.Kerner-club on the names and inscriptions of the "Stone Album" in the walls of Weibertreu castle)

Literature on generation of aeolian tones

induced by wind

    flowing around cylindrical obstacles (cylinders, wires etc.) like the strings used in the Aeolian Harp

    passing sharp edges like mountain-ridges, long dunes etc.

    streaming through gaps formed by long, parallel sharp edges like windowsills, door-slits, etc.

Baxter, Neilson Shearman, John Brücke im Wind (Originaltitel: River to Cross) Erscheinungsjahr: 1950 Hersteller: Basic Film (London) Vertrieb: IWF (Göttingen) Beschränkungen: nur leihweise in Deutschland als Video Techn. Daten: Video ; SW, 13 1/2 min; verfügbare Sprachen: Komm. en Bestellnummer: W 98 Beschreibung:Vorbereitende Forschungsarbeiten für den Bau einer 900 m langen Stahlhängebrücke über den Severn in England: Analyse von Gesteinsproben, Echolotmessungen (im Zeichentrick), Windmessungen, aerodynamische Modellversuche im Windkanal. Originalaufnahmen vom Zusammenbruch der Tacoma-Hängebrücke (USA). Mit Luftaufnahmen.

Bedard, A.J. Jr. Infrasound originating near Mountainous Regions in Colorado Journal of Applied Meteorology, 1978; pp1014-1022

Bedard, A. J. Jr. Infrasonic detection of severe weather Proceedings of the 19th Conf. on Severe Local Storms Minneapolis, Minn., 14-18 Sept.1998.

Bedard, A. J. Jr Infrasonic and Near Infrasonic Atmospheric Sounding and Imaging NOAA/ERL/Environmental Technology Laboratory 325 Broadway Boulder, CO 80303 See online article at

Blevins, Robert D. Flow Induced Vibration Van Nostrand, New York, 1990 (See online PDF-file)

Blevins, Robert D. Review of Sound Induced by Vortex Shedding Journal of Sound and Vibration 92; 1984; pp.455-470 (best overview I found so far)

Doolan, Con, J. Aeolian tones radiated from flow past two square cylinders in tandem. Flow and Noise Simulation of the NASA Tandem Cylinder Experiment using OpenFOAM American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper AIAA-2009-3157 Etkin, E.; Korbacher, G.K;and Keefe, R.T. Acoustic Radiation from a Stationary Cylinder in a Fluid Stream (Aeolian Tones) Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, vol.29, no.1, 1957, p30-36

Goldman, R. The Generation and Supression of Von Karman Vortex Forces Engineering Rept., No. 8984, Martin Co., Baltimore, 1957

Hemon, Pascal Approche du phénomène de galop par un modèle d'effort retardé et validation expérimentale See online article at

Kameier, Frank Aeroakustik und Strukturschwingungen Haus der Technik e.V. Essen; Seminar Aeroakustik Mai 2000 Siehe online-Version in PDF Format

Kármán, Theodore von; H. Rubach Über den Mechanismus des Flüssigkeits- und Luftwiderstandes Physikalische Zeitschrift, Vol.13, Heft2; 1912; pp.49-59 (Original work on Kármán vortex streets)

Krüger, F.; Lauth, A. Theorie der Hiebtöne. Annalen der Physik und Chemie (Leipzig), IV. Folge, Band. 44, 1914, pp801-812, See online version of Annalen der Physik und Chemie

Leehey, P.; Hanson, C. E. Aeolian tones associated with resonated vibration Journal of Sound and Vibration 13, 1971, 465-483.

Lighthill, Michael James On sound generated aerodynamically; 1952

Lienhard, John H. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Fluid Mechanical Forces Producing Vibration in Transmission Line Conductors Progress Report No. 6; College of Engineering Research Division; Washington State University, 1966

Mongeau, Luc, and Jin-Seok Hong Influence of leakage on the flow-induced response of vehicles with open sunroofs 1997; Ray W. Herrick Laboratories, Purdue University

Parker, R. Aeroacoustics International Journal of Fluid Dynamics (1997), Vol. 1, Article1 See online version at

Phillips, O.M. The Intensity of Aeolian Tones Journal ofFluid Mechanics, vol.1, 1956, pp607ff.

Lord Rayleigh Aeolian tones The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosphical Magazine and Journal of Science [Sixth Series], Vol. 29, No.172, April 1915, pp.433-444. or in: John William Strutt/ Baron Rayleigh "Scientific Papers"; Cambridge At the University Press; 1920; Vol VI. 1911-1919; Art. No. 394. "Aeolian Tones" pp.315-325 See online version

Relf, E. F. On the sound emitted by wires of circular section when exposed to an air-current The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosphical Magazine and Journal of Science, Vol. 42, No. 47, 1921, pp173-176, .

Richardson, E. G. Aeolian tones Proceedings of the Physical Society of London. Vol. 36, 1923/24, pp153-157,

Rofail, A.W. and R. Tonin An Exploration of Wind-Noise in Buildings 8th AWES Workshop, Perth, 10-11 February, 2000

Wassef, W.A.; Bassim, M.N; Housny-Emam, M; tangri, K. Acoustic Emission Spectra due to Leaks from Circular Holes and Rectangular Slits Journal of the Acoustic Society of America; vol 77 n.3, 1985, pp.916-923

Weaver, W. Wind-Induced Vibrations in Antenna Members Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, vol 87, No.EMI, 1961, pp141ff.

Zdravkovich, M. M. Complementary comment on "Review of sound induced by vortex shedding" Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 99, Part 2, 1985, pp295-297

A Japanese online article in English on vortex shedding and propagation of sound. English title unknown....

Another online-paper on sound generation at window-gaps... (bull. No.4 by Windtech company/Australia)

THE super website on the phenomenon of "galloping" transmission wires acting like the strings of an aeolian harp giving sounds in subsonic range. See:

And some on Helmholtz- Resonators

A. CUMMINGS, Acoustics of a wine bottle, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 31 (1973), pp. 331 – 343. 1 U. Ingard, ‘‘On the theory and design of acoustic resonators,’’ J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 25, 1037–1061 ~1953!.

R. C. Chanaud, ‘‘Effects of geometry on the resonance frequency of Helmholtz resonators,’’ J. Sound Vib. 178, 337–348 ~1994!.

P. K. Tang and W. A. Sirignano, ‘‘Theory of a generalized Helmholtz resonator,’’ J. Sound Vib. 26, 247–262 ~1973!.

N. S. Dickey and A. Selamet, ‘‘Helmholtz resonators: One-dimensional limit for small cavity length-to-diameter ratios,’’ J. Sound Vib. 195, 512–517 ~1996!.

A. Selamet, P. M. Radavich, N. S. Dickey, and J. M. Novak, ‘‘Circular concentric Helmholtz resonator,’’ J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101, 41–51 ~1997!.

A. Selamet and Z. L. Ji, ‘‘Circular asymmetric Helmholtz resonators,’’ J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 2360–2369 ~2000!.


Kastner, Jean-Georges Louis (Johann Georg Ludwig, siehe Lebenslauf)
La Harpe d'Éole
Sur les Rapports des Phénomènes Sonores de la Nature avec la Science et l'Art.
- Première Partie: Musique Cosmique
- Deuxième Partie : La Harpe d'Éole (Histoire, modèles divers et applications) - Troisième Partie : Phénomènes Acoustiques (Production et propagation du son, vibration des cordes etc.)
See a digitalized online version of this parts...
-Stéphen ou La Harpe d'Éole; Grand Monoloque Lyrique avec Choeurs Paroles de Francis Maillan Musique de Georges Kastner (Johann Georg Kastner composer and musical writer, born 9. March 1810 in Straßburg; died 19. December 1867 in Paris) Brandus, Dufour & Cie., Jules Renouard & Cie.; Paris; 1856 (Most comprehensive, old book on aeolian harps, its tuning and use, sounds in nature, different models of aeolian harps; a lot of nice stories, in French. It was (and still is...) really delightful reading this book written by a rather interested and competent author, who obviously collected all he could get around the theme (newspaper articles, scientific books/ articles, anecdotes) in a time of rapid progress of special acoustics. Contains even a partition where Kastner tried to picture the acoustics of the aeolian harp with an orchestra...!! (Don't actually know, whether it was ever played. Somebody knowing more on this? Please mail me.) Strongly recommended to read!) Möglichkeit der Fernleihbestellung. z.B. hier.)

Kaufmann, Fr. Kaufmann, Friedrich Theodor (Akustiker und instrumentenbauer(09.04.1823, Dresden – 05.02.1872, Dresden)
Vervollkommnung der Äolsharfe durch Herrn Wilhelm Melhop (Hamburg)
in: Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung; Breitkopf und Härtel, Leipzig;
No.38, 2.September 1841, pp.780-781 See a download version in KVK digitalized library Munich
(nice article on improvements of the aeolian harp by Wilhelm Melhop, Hamburg. A detailed description of these trials in Minssen, Aeolsharfe, der Wind als Musikant)

Kircher, Athanasius
Musurgia Universalis, sive ars magna consoni et dissoni ars minor in X. libros digesta. 2. Reprint of the edition Rome 1650. - Hildesheim [a.o.] : Published by Olms, Germany 1999 XXV, 690 S., [14] Bl., 462 S., [6] Bl. : Ill., Notenbeispiele. pp.352-354 (See original text written in Latin...) and a copy of it. (One of the oldest sources on aeolian harps AND its use on kites (!!) in Europe etc. Written in Latin; see also the biography of Athanasius Kircher (in English ;-)) ) German translated edition made by Andrea Hirschen, Pfarrer zu Bächlingen in der Grafschaft Hohenloh; Gedruckt zu Schwäbisch Hall bei Hans Reinhard Laidigen/ A. 1662. (See this German O-text) (Reprint of that German edition by Bärenreiter Verlag Kassel, Basel, London, New-York; 1988. Please note: In this German translation the aeolian harp is called machinamentum 9. whereas in the original it is machinamentum 10.! A poor translation (!) of the Latin original, the drawings only roughly following the original but are partially re-drawn upside down etc...) (For ordering please see Karlsruher Virtueller KatalogKVK-virtual library)

Kircher, Athanasius
Phonurgia Nova sive Conjugium Mechano-Physicum Artis & Naturae Paranympha Phonosophia Concinnatum. Campidonae Per R. Dreherr. Anno MDCLXXIII. Kempten, Germany 1673; pp.143-146 (See digitalized version of the original in Latin) or Kircher, Athanasius Neue Hall und Thonkunst Deutsche Übersetzung(see excerpt) des obigen Werkes durch Agatho Carione, Nördlingen; Arnold Heylen Verlag Ellwangen 1684 Reprint 1983 durch Edition "libri rari" Th.Schäfer GmbH Hannover; pp.104-108. ISBN 3-88-746-072-3 Anmerkung: In der deutschen Übersetzung steht die Illustration des "fliegenden Fisches/ Drachens" offensichtlich auf dem Kopf. Zumindest der Illustrator hat also einen Drachen noch nie zuvor im Flug gesehen...
(German translation on improved models of aeolian harps and theory of sound generation; original text in Latin)

Kirby; Percival, Robson
The Music and musical Instruments of the Korana.
In „Bantu studies“ : a journal devoted to the scientific study of Bantu, Hottentot & Bushman / Department of Bantu Studies, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. - Johannesburg : Univ. of Witwatersrand Press Bd.6; 1932, pp.183-204
(article on the Goura or Lesiba)

Kirby; Percival, Robson
The Gora and its Bantu Successors
In „Bantu studies“ : a journal devoted to the scientific study of Bantu, Hottentot & Bushman / Department of Bantu Studies, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. - Johannesburg : Univ. of Witwatersrand Press, Vol. 5, No.2 June 1931, pp. 89-109
(best overview work on the theme I found so far, also good construction remarks)

Kirby; Percival, Robson
A Further Note on the Gora and Its Bantu Successors
In "Bantu studies“ : a journal devoted to the scientific study of Bantu, Hottentot & Bushman / Department of Bantu Studies, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. - Johannesburg : Univ. of Witwatersrand PressBd. 9; 135, pp.53-62 Plates; II-VII
(article on the Goura or Lesiba)

Kolb, Peter
Caput Bonae Spei Hodiernum
"Das ist: Vollständige Beschreibung des Vorgebürges der Guten Hoffnung. Worinnen in dreyen Theilen abgehandelt wird wie es heut zu Tage nach seiner Situation und Eigenschaft aussiehet; ingleichen was ein Natur-Forscher in den dreyen Reichen der Natur daselbst findet und antrifft: Wie nicht weniger, was die eigenen Einwohner die Hottentotten vor seltsame Sitten und Gebräuche haben und endlich alles, was die Europäischen daselbst gestifteten Colonien anbetrifft.(...) mit angefügter genugsamer Nachricht, wie es aug des auctoris hinein- und heraus- Reise zugegangen … mit nöhtigen Kupfern gezieret, und einem doppelten Register versehen / von M. Peter Kolben, Rectore zu Neustadt an der Aysch bey Peter Conrad Monath"; Nürnberg, Germany 1719; siebzehnter Brief, pp.527-528 (First mentioning and exact description of the Goura, a mouth blown stringed musical bow; seeexcerpt of the original text in German. A replica-copy you'll find in Kubik, see below)
See also the REPRINT with a comment under the title:
Unter Hottentotten; 1705-1713. Die Aufzeichnungen von Peter Kolb Herausgegeben von Werner Jopp; Horst Erdmann Verlag Tübingen und Basel; 1979

Koch, Heinrich Christoph
"Die Äolsharfe"
in: Musikalisches Lexikon (Full title: Musikalisches Lexikon, welches die theoretische und praktische Tonkunst, encyclopädisch bearbeitet, alle alten und neuen Kunstwörter erklärt, und die alten und neuen Instrumente beschrieben, enthält) ext. 1.edition by August Hermann dem Jüngeren; Frankfurt am Main 1802; pp. 82-90 (reprints exist,e.g. published by Olms, Hildesheim, 1985. See a typed copy of the original text in German See a digitalized version of the original
(Article on the aeolian harp by H.C. Koch and his trials with this instrument)

Kubik, Gerhard
Das Khoisan-Erbe im Süden von Angola
in: Erich Stockmann Musikkulturen in Afrika Verlag Neue Musik Berlin; Berlin; 1987; pp.82-196 (Detailed description of the various musical bows of Africa, in German) By the way: Contains a copy of the Peter Kolb's original text "Caput Bonae Spei Hodiernum" (see above) the first mentioning of the Goura/ Gom-Gom musical bow on the pages 173-174

Kunst, Jaap
Music in Java: Its History, its Theory and its Technique
Published by Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, Holland, 1949, 2 volumes. p.242, p.434 (pictures) and 629 (names of several flutes)
("Sawangan Dara" Pigeon whistles and Changkring tree/ bamboo as manufacturing material mentionned)

Kurz, Sulpiz
Bamboo and its use
Indian Forester. Vol.I, No.3; January 1876 ; pp.219-269 (specially 233+234) (Description of the famous "Weeping Bamboo" in Buitenzorg of former Dutch India (today Bogor/ Java),
an aeolian musical instrument made of living bamboo)

La Perre de Roo, V.
Préserver les Pigeons des Oiseaux de Proie.
in: Le Pigeon Messager, ou Guide pour l'Élève du Pigeon Voyageur et son Application à l'Art Militaire. published by E.Deyrolle fils; Paris, 1877; pp.184-186
(nice article on former military use of pigeon whistles against birds of prey in France) see local copy

Langguth, Georg August (Prof. der Medizin und Physik in Wittenberg) Rector Academiae Vitembergensis Georgivs Avgvstvs Langgvth Philosophiae Et Medicinae Doctor Pathol. Et Chirvrg. Prof. Pvbl. Ordinar Mvsei Anatom. Inspector Soc. Oeconom Lips. Membr. Honorar. Et Academ. Senior Civibvs Academicis / Georgivs Avgvstvs Langgvth. - Vitembergae, 1777. - [4] Bl.; (lat.) V.
Einrichtung der in einem Fenster transversal angebrachten, auf Kupfertafel III im Profil abgebildeten Aeolusharfe des Herrn Dr. Langguth...
in: Annalen der Physik; 1803; .Band 15; pp.305-306; Tafel III.
(Article describing/ showing a certain type of aeolian harp meant to be installed in a (sash-) window; see also online version of all "Annalen der Physik und Chemie")

Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph
"Von der Äolusharfe"
in: Georg Christoph Lichtenberg's Vermischte Schriften Neue Original-Ausgabe, sechster Band, Verlag der Dieterichschen Buchhandlung; Göttingen, 1867; pp.3-10 Ursprünglich Göttinger Taschenkalender 1792; pp.137-145 (see article in google books)
(Article on the origin of the aeolian harp in England/ Mr. Jones, Mr.Pope century and in Greece/ Eusthathinus century and trials of the author with the aeolian harp)

Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph
Artikel über die "Riesen-Wetterharfe" des Hauptmann Haas in Basel.
Göttinger Taschenkalender; 1789; Neue Erfindungen, physikalische und andere Merkwürdigkeiten; pp.129-134
(Report on a giant "weather"-aeolian harp in Basel/ Suisse in 1987. See text.)

Lichtenstein, H.
Travels in South Africa, 1803-1806, translated by Anne Plumptre, London, 1815; ii, pp.232, 233
In: Henry Balfour, M.A., F.Z.S "The Goura, a Stringed-Wind Musical Instrument of the Bushmen and Hottentots" The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. XXXII, London 1902; pp.160-161
(An interesting description of the Goura, with details as to the notes which can be produced upon it.)

Lessing, Theodor
Der Lärm, eine Kampfschrift gegen die Geräusche unseres Lebens
aus der Reihe „Grenzfragen des Nerven- und Seelenlebens.“ Einzel-Darstellungen für Gebildete aller Stände... Hrsg. L.Loewenfeld; 9.Band, Heft54; 1908, Verlag von J.F.Bergmann; Wiesbaden
( a „non-competition“ article here – nothing has changed since that time. A „combat-writing“ against the NOISE...worth reading :-)) )

Liskovius, Karl Friedrich Salomon
Über den Einfluß der verschiedenen Weite der Labialpfeifen auf ihre Tonhöhe
Poggendorf's Annalen der Physik und Chemie; Leipzig 1843; Bd.58; pp. 95-100
(Article on the impact of different widths on labial flutes' pitches)

Liskovius, Karl Friedrich Salomon
Über den Einfluß der Flaschenform auf die Tonhöhe der darin tönenden Luft, mit Beziehung auf die Menschenstimme
Poggendorf's Annalen der Physik und Chemie; Leipzig 1843; Bd.58; pp.100ff.
(Article on the impact of different widths/ shapes of glass-bottles on its pitch)

Lutz, Markus
Kurze Beschreibung der Stadt und des Kantons Basel : ein Handbüchlein für Fremde und Einheimische. Nebst einem Wegweiser von Basel durch die ganze Schweiz und nach den vorzüglichsten Städten Deutschlands und Frankreichs
Ed.: bey Samuel Flick, Basel, 1811; 1. Auflage. (In 2. Auflage 1814 keine Erwähnung der Wetterharfe im Haas'schen Garten mehr) French edition: "Notices sur la ville et le canton de Basle. Pour l'instruction des voyageurs". Basel, 1808; 72pp; Kl.8°. p10. (see faksimile version of the 1811 edition p.34)
(The "Weather-Harp" (german transl.), a special sort of barometer or aeolian harp; wires strung in the garden of W.Haas, Basel/ Suisse; in Kastner p.88 wrongly cited as Plick, Samuel))

Lottermoser, Werner
Die akustischen Grundlagen der Orgel
Schriftenreihe: Orgeln, Kirchen und Akustik; Fachbuchreihe das Musikinstrument; Bd. 16 Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Verlag Bochinsky, 1983; 155 pages
(Like Adelung an Excellent book on the basics of organ building, organ acoustic, different flutes types, materials, tuning etc. full of valuable things on how organ flutes work...)

MacPhee, Colin
Music in Bali
New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1966; pp.3 +35 Reprint: Da Capo Press, New York 1976
(Sunari or "Sundari" bamboo aeolian-organ, also pigeon flutes. Short mentioning only)

Maltzan, Ilse
Die Äolsharfe
in: Die Gartenkunst, Heft 2; Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft; Worms; Germany 1990; 2. Jahrgang; pp258-269
(Article on the aeolian harp, its origin and its use in gardens)

McCann, E.A.
An Eolian Harp that Is Simply Constructed
in: Popular Science Monthly; Vol.99 - No.2; Aug.1921, P.101
(Article on the aeolian harp, its origin and its use in gardens)

Minssen, Mins; G. Krieger; E.Bäuerle, A.Philipczuk, J.Hagen
Äolsharfen; der Wind als Musikant.
(Aeolian harps; the wind as musician) Fachbuchreihe "Das Musikinstrument"; Bd.64 Verlag Erwin Bochinsky, Frankfurt/ M., 1997; ISBN 3-923639-14-7 (Most detailed book in German on aeolian harps; its construction, physics, sound etc. Best recent book I found so far. Another article see below; das Buch ist derzeit vergriffen.)

Minssen, Mins
Windharfen, Äolsharfen, Wetterharfen, Geisterharfen: der Wind als Saitenspieler.
In: Scheidewege. Jahresschrift für skeptisches Denken, Jahrgang. 25. 1995/96; Baiersbronn 1995. pp.257 - 278.
(Nice article on Wind and Aeolian Harps)

Moyle, Richard
Tongan Music
Auckland University Press, Auckland; 1987; ISBN 1 86940 007 0;pp.107-108
(Sounding holes bored into the bamboos of round enclosures being formerly built as stores for vegetables. Sounds acting against animals and birds. Also another aeolian instrument made of a coconut shell)

Nakamura; Y.; Fukamachi; N.
Sound generation in corrugated tubes
Fluid Dynamics Research; Elsevier, Amsterdam, Vol.7; 1991, pp.255-261 Orig. article in: The Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics
(on "whirlies", sound generation in corrugated tubes)

Nicholas, David
Pigeons with a whistle
in: "The Age"; (Family Magazine); Melbourne, Friday, November 6th; 1964 p.20
(Article in an australian newspaper on pigeons/ the art of musical flight)

The Aeolian Harp
Scientific American Supplement No. 483; New York; April 4, 1885
(Article on The Aeolian Harp with images of the instruments in Baden-Baden's old castle/ Germany. Instruments made by Kastner?)

De Duivenpost
in: De Natuur; poulair Geïllustreerd Maandschrift; gewijd aan de natuurkundige wetenschappen en hare toepassingen. 15 Maart 1885 - 5e jaargang
(see an online version here)

Pigeon Whistles
In: "The Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin"; Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Museum of Art, Vol. 3, No. 12 (Oct., 1905), pp. 77-78

Army Pigeons to Whistle
In: Popular Science Monthly; November 1928; p.63
(Short article (see here) on the use of pigeon whistles for protection of army's carrier pigeons against birds of prey)

Pigeons of the Midnight Command
in: Popular Mechanics Magazine; Popular Mechanics Company, Chicago; Sept 1935; pp376-379, 122A
(Nice article on the use of pigeon whistles for night flights of pigeons and against birds of prey)

Pigeon Messengers of Peace and War
in: Popular Mechanics Magazine; Popular Mechanics Company, Chicago; Vol.43; No.4; April 1925; pp564-569
(Nice article on the use of pigeon whistles against birds of prey in military use of pigeons)

Über das Singen der Telegraphendrähte
in: Didaskalia; Didaskalia oder Blätter für Geist, Gemüth und Publizität Hrsg.: J. L. Heller [et alt.]; Heidelberg ; Frankfurt, M. : Bad. Post, 1831-1930 Beil. zu: Frankfurter Journal. - Frankfurt, M. : Barth [ZDB-ID 975125-7] Beil. zu: Badische Post : Heidelberger Zeitung (gegr. 1858) u. Handelsblatt . - Frankfurt,M. : Post [ZDB-ID 384053-0] Beil. zu: Frankfurter Nachrichten
(On the singing of telegraph wires, see a local copy of the original article; in German)

Olivieira, Ernesto Veiga de; Galhano, Fernando; Pereira, Benjamin
Tecnologia Tradicional Portuguesa; Etnologia-2; Instituto Nacional de Investigacao Científica Centro de Estudos de Etnologia; 1983 by INIC, Lisboa, Portugal; III - Moinhos de Vento; pp.339-341
(pp.217-520 Most complete work on Portuguese windmills)

Pellisov, Carl, Emil
Andeutungen zur Begründung einer Theorie der Aeolsharfe
Annalen der Physik, Band 95; 1830, pp.237-259
(On the theory of the aeolian harp. See online article)

Pohsner, Anja
VI. Exkurs: Der Topos der Äolsharfe
in: „Wenn ich von mir selbst abhinge, würd’ ich Componist“ - Die Umwege des Musikers E. T. A. Hoffmann Wechselwirkungen innerhalb seines musikalischen und literarischen Werkes Inaugural Dissertation, Heidelberg April 1999; pp.181-190 see
(On the Aeolian Harp's meaning in the work of ETA Hoffmann; good comments)

Quandt, Dr. Christian Friedrich
Nachricht von dem Schnellschen Animo-Corde
in: Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung. (Teil: Korrespondenz) Breitkopf und Härtel, Leipzig; Februar 1799;(Intelligenzblatt zur Allgemeinen Musikalischen Zeitung); pp.346-347
(See a copy of this Correspondence-article on the aeolian harp)

Quandt, Dr. Christian Friedrich
Versuche und Bemerkungen über die Äolsharfe
in: Lausizische Monatsschrift, Görlitz; 1795; pp.277-282
(Nice article on the sounding and properties ofC.F.Quandt's aeolian harp trials. See a transcription.)

Rossell Turull, Ivana
El Organo de Tramontana
Momoria para la Obtención del Diploma de Estudios Avanzados Sección de Acústica, Departamento de Tcnologias Audiovisuales Enginyeria i Arquitectura La Salle; Universitat Ramon Lull published in 2006 or 2007, 244 pages. Contact
(well made work concerning all aspects of wind-driven soundproducing systems with research-results in detail!! In Catalan language)

Salmen, Walter:
Gartenmusik. Musik - Tanz - Konversation im Freien.
Hildesheim: Olms Vlg. 2006.; VIII/; 458 S. mit 142 Abbildungen und einigen Notenbeispielen
(Some articles on the use of aeolian harps for garden concerts. For example p.157ff on Asthanasius Kircher's aeolian harp;See online version)

Schmeltz; Johannes Dietrich Eduard
Das Schwirrholz; Versuch einer Monographie
in: Verhandlungen des Vereins für naturwissenschaftliche Unterhaltung zu Hamburg 1894-1895 9. Band; Verlag von Friederichsen & Co.; 1896; pp92-128 und 1 Tafel mit 27 Beispielzeichnungen
(Nice and complete Monography on bullroarers)

Schott, Gaspar
Mechanica Hydraulico-Pneumatica
Herbip. 1657; 1 vol. in 4; p148; part.11
(Little text on A.Kirchers' experience/ joke with an Aeolian Harp playing at night in his room)

Schubert, Gotthilf Heinrich von
Ansichten von der Nachtseite der Naturwissenschaft
Dresden, Arnoldsche Buchhandlung, 1808
(On the nature's voices)

Schulze, Trouillet, Reichow
Sound-sample of a "Goura"/ "Umhupe" (last track of the CD)
in: Vol. 9: SOUTH-AFRICA. Johnny Clegg [vocals, guitar, umhupe] & Shipo Mchunu [vocals, guitar, concertina] (Duo Juluka). Ladysmith Black Mambazo [choir]. Cologne Zulu Festival. Recorded live at the WDR-Funkhaus, Cologne (Köln/ Germany), 1981. Track 18 recorded in Johannesburg in 1977. Text: Jean Trouillet. WDR/World Network, 1992. Nr. 54.036. Series: World Network. Edited by Christian Scholze and Jean Trouillet in cooperation with Jan Reichow (WDR Westdeutscher Rundfunk), licensed by WDR. Digitally mastered at Sound Studio "N,” Cologne. Manufactured in Germany. (P) + © Network Medien GmbH, D-60316 Frankfurt, vols. 1-42, 1991-1997. LC6759. (Distribution: Zweitausendeins Versand, Postfach, D-60381 Frankfurt; Fax: +49-1805-242001.) Commentary booklets in German, English and French. Further informations at ..

Schwenter, Daniel und Harsdörffer, Georg Philipp
"Die XVI. Frage. Wie man einen feurigen Drachen in der Lufft soll können fliegen machen?"
in Kapitel: "Der IX. Theil. Von der Feuer= und Schmeltzkunst.pp. 514-515. See below. (Erste Erwähnung einer Drachenpfeife in einem deutschen Werk! First mentioning of a kite-whistle in a German book)
in: Deliciae Physico-Mathematicae oder Mathematische und Philosophische Erquickstunden: darinnen sechshundert drey und sechzig Schöne, liebliche, und annehmliche Kunststücklein, Auffgaben und Fragen ausz der Rechenkunst, Landtmessen, Perspectiv, Naturkündigung und andern Wissenschafften genom[m]en, begriffen seindt, Wie solche uf der andern seiten dieses blats ordentlich nacheinander verzeichnet worden. 3 volumes.. Published by: In Verlegung Jerimiae Dümlers; Nürnberg, Germany; 1636-52 Reprint: Frankfurt/M. 1990/91; ISBN 3805108028 Online version with possible download see here and better overview with thumbnails here Volume 1: Darinnen Sechshundert dreyund Sechzig, Schöne, Liebliche und Annehmliche Kunststücklein, Auffgaben vnd Fragen, auß der Rechenkunst, Landtmessen, Perspectiv, Naturkündigung, und andern Wissenschafften genom[m]en, begriffen seindt ... p.176:. On the Aeolian Harp Volume 2: Bestehend in fünffhundert nützlichen und lustigen Kunstfragen, nachsinnigen Aufgaben, und deroselben gründlichen Erklärungen Volume 3: Bestehend in Fünffhundert nutzlichen und lustigen Kunstfragen, und deroselben gründlichen Erklärung p.514: Making of a kite with whistles in it or a light in it..


Scidmore; Eliza Ruhamah
The Streets Of Peking
In: The Century; a popular quarterly; Vol 58, Issue6; Oct.1899; pp.859-873
(A nice article describing the street life of Beijing around 1900; description of pigeon whistles as a part of the street life)

Serafin, Stefania; Kojs, Jurai
The Voice of the Dragon: A Physical Model of a Rotating Corrugated Tube Proceedings of the 6th Int. Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-03), London, England, Sept. 8-11, 2003; pp. DAFX 1-5. see online article
(on "whirlies", sound generation in corrugeated tubes)

Silverman; M. P.; Cushman; G. M.
Voice of the Dragon: the rotating corrugated resonator
European Jopurnal of Physics 10;IOP Publishing Ltd. & The European Physical Society; 1989); pp298-304
(on "whirlies", the sound generation in corrugated tubes)

Skeat, Walter William; Blagden, Charles Otto
Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula
Macmillan and Co., 1906; London, New York;Vol. II; p.143, 171
(Aeolian Bamboo Organ mentionned as an instrument of the Besisi-people on the Malay Peninsula)

Sondhauss, G.
Ueber den Brummkreisel und das Schwingungsgesetz der kubischen Pfeifen
"Annalen der Physik und Chemie"; Poggendorf; Leipzig;1850; Bd.81 (157), pp.235-257
(Good article on the humming top and the behaviour of its sound chamber see online version)

Sting, Albert
Die Äolsharfe
In: Justinus Kerner; Jubiläumsband zum 200. Geburtstag Verlag Nachrichtenblatt der Stadt Weinsberg, 1986, pp355-359

Strouhal, Vincenc Cénék
Über eine besondere Art der Tonerregung
Habilitationsschrift der Hohen Philosophischen Facultät der Universität Würzburg Druck und Verlag der Stahel'schen Buch- & Kunsthandlung; Würzburg; 1878; 40 pp. und eine Lithographie.
(First description of friction tones and their resonance tones in wires caused by an airstream passing by wires(Aeolian Harp) or hitting a sharp edge (Flute). See some important excerpts of the original text in German)

Strouhal, Vincenc Cénék
Das Summen in den Telegraphendrähten
in: Meteorologische Zeitschrift; hrsg. Von der Deutschen meteorologischen Gesellschaft, Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Meteorologie, Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Meteorologie; pp. 190-191; Band 34, Verlag Bornträger, Stuttgart 1917.
(nice article on the explanation of sound generation on wires and sharp edges)

SUGIYAMA, Kouichiro
Touch the Sound of Wind ~ Practice of Aeolian Harp
The Journal of the Society for Art and Science; Vol. 7 (2008) , No. 4 pp.170-180
(Article on the Aeolian Harp in Japanese !)

Thien, Heinz
Chinesische Taubenpfeifen
In: Geflügel-Börse; Verlag Jürgens GmbH, Industriestraße 13, 82110 Germering, Germany; Vol. 2/ 1988; pp.2-4
(Nice article on pigeon flutes in the German Poultry Magazine)

Thien, Heinz
"Ge Zi Shao" - Taubenpfeifen in China früher und heute
In: Geflügel-Börse; Verlag Jürgens GmbH, Industriestraße 13, 82110 Germering, Germany; Vol. 17/ 1983; pp.6-9
(Nice article on pigeon flutes in the German Poultry Magazine on origin, tradition, fixation etc.)

Tissandier, Gaston(?); Dr.Z... Les Harpes Éoliennes in: La Nature, Revue des Sciences et de leurs applications aux arts et l'industrie Gaston Tissandier, Edit. G.Masson, Paris, 1883 Premier semestre No: 498, pp.44-46 (Article in French on the Aeolian Harps of Baden-Baden Castle/ Germany)

Uray-Köhalmi, K.
Über die pfeifenden Pfeile der innerasiatischen Reiternomaden.
In: Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae (Budapest), t. III, fasc. 1-2, 1952, pp. 45-71
(The whistling arrows of the cavalier-nomads of inner asia)

Wackernagel, Bettina
Europäische Zupf- und Streichinstrumente, Hackbretter und Äolsharfen
Deutsches Museum München; Musikinstrumentensammlung; Katalog Verlag Erwin Bochinsky; Frankfurt a. Main, 1997; pp.163 - 172. (Description and pictures of old 5 Aeolian Harps in the Munich Technical Museum's instruments collection)

Waetzmann, Erich
Schule des Horchens
Verlag B.G.Teubner, Leipzig, Berlin, 1940; 66 pages
(School of listening - nice booklet on training the ear. Military aspects of listening due to war times...)

Wicks, Mark
Organ-Building for Amateurs; a practical guide for home-workers.
Containing specifications, designs and full instructions for making every portion of the instrument London;Ward, Lock & Co. Ltd.; Warick HOuse, Salisbury Square. E.C., New York and Melbourne; 1887; 287pp. Reprint by The Organ Literature Foundation, Braintree, Mass. 02184. ISBN 0-913746-01-0
(...making organ-flute-tubes of PAPER! etc.)

Windisch-Laube, Walter
Einer luftgebornen Muse geheimnisvolles Saitenspiel
Zum Sinn-Bild der Äolsharfe in Texten und Tönen seit dem 18. Jahrhundert D 30 - Disertation Universität Frankfurt am Main 2000; Fachbereich Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaften Are Musik Verlags GmbH, Mainz; 2004; Teilbände I; 1/II, 2/II.
(most complete work on the aeolian harp's meaning in literature and music since the 18th century. Most complete literature list on the theme)

Young, Matthew (Bishop of Clonfert)
Theorie der Aeols-Harfen
in: Annalen der Physik, Band 10, 1802; pp.57-67 (see local text copy...) Siehe online Artikel: or here: This is the German translation of an excerpt of: An Enquiry into the principal Phenomena of Sound and musical Strings by Matth. Young; H.D. Trinity-College, Dublin;J.Hill, London, 1784, total 203pp; (pp.170-182 the article)
(Article on the theory of the aeolian harp's sound generation)

Zemp, Hugo
Un Orgue Éolien du Guadalcanal
in: Objets et Mondes. Revue du Musée de l'Homme. Tome XI; Fascicule 2; Paris; Été 1971; pp221-226
(Detailed Description of"Aeolian Bamboo Organs" (Ghau Kilori) as a traditional windpowered instrument on the Salomon Islands. See the french original text.)

Zumbroich, Maria Eberhard
Die Musik des Unberührten eine Einführung mit Klangdemonstrationen in "Der Äolsharfe Laut"
in: Beiträge zur Schwäbischen Literatur- und Geistesgeschichte und Mitteilungen des Justinus-Kerner-Vereins und Frauenvereins Weinsberg e.V. Band 1 Hrsg. Margot Buchholz und Hartmut Froeschle, Verlag des Justinus-Kerner-Vereins Weinsberg; 1981, pp.107-112 + Zugehörige Schallplatte mit Tonaufnahmen der Burg-Weibertreu Äolsharfen: "Der Äolsharfe Laut", Dem (Christian Andreas) Justinus Kerner Verein zum 75 jährigen Bestehen aufgezeichnet von E.M.Zumbroich, 17cm Schallplatte, Verlag S.v.Skopnik, Gaildorf, 1980
(On the history of the Aeolian Harp, its significance in romatic literature, especially concerning the instruments on Weibertreu-Castle/ Germany and a record with sounds of the aeolian harps of Weinsberg-castle)

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Part C)...the periphery of bamboo kite building (Papermaking, Bamboo, ropemaking, knots , plants, etc) (go to the top of the page)

Literature concerning plants used for Kite Craft and Aeolian Instruments

Lötschert, Wilhelm: Palmen. Botanik - Kultur - Nutzung. Stuttgart, Verlag Eugen Ulmer. 1985

Lötschert, Wilhelm; Beese, Gerhard Pflanzen der Tropen BLV Bestimmungsbuch BLV Verlag, München, Wien, Zürich; 1992; 263pp. (Nice book on tropical plants and its uses. Siehe auch Buch von Franke and book by Farrely on bamboo.)

L. Diels Ersatzstoffe aus dem Pflanzenreich : ein Hilfsbuch zum Erkennen und Verwerten der heimischen Pflanzen für Zwecke der Ernährung und Industrie in Kriegs- und Friedenszeiten Verlag Schweizerbart, Stuttgart; 1918; 418pp.

Franke, Wolfgang Nutzpflanzenkunde Nutzbare Gewächse der gemäßigten Breiten, Subtropen und Tropen Thieme Verlag; Stuttgart, New York; 1997; 6. Auflage; 509 pages. (on plants used by mankind for vegetables, fruits, fibers, spices, woods and technical applications etc. Siehe auch Buch von Lötschert and book by Farrely on bamboo)

Hammer, Karl; Gladis, THomas; Hethke, Marina Kürbis, Kiwano & Co. Vom Nutzen der Vielfalt Band 1 Der Katalog zur Ausstellung; 128pp. Universitätsbibliothek Kassel, Diagonale 10, D-34127;2002;ISBN: 3-89792-088-3 (nice booklet on the big family of gourd plants and its use)

Hevers, Jürgen Vom Riß zum Rohharz - das Ende einer forstlichen Nutzung in der ehemaligen DDR Braunschweig : Staatliches Naturhistorisches Museum, 1992; 104 pp.ISBN: 3-925538-06-2 (On the production of rosin in former GDR)

Kohlross, Herbert Die Schwarzföhre in Österreich Ihre außergwöhnliche Bedeutung für Natur, Wirtschaft und kultur Dipl. ing. Herbert Kohlross, 2770 Gutenstein, Eigenverlag 2006; 413pp. ISBN-10: 3-200-00720-6 ISBN-13: 978-3-200-00720-8 Homepage: Darin enthalten die folgenden Beiträge im Kapitel:

Vom Pechen und von der Harzverwertung pp.165-279

Stingl, Rupert - Rund um den Harzberg - Pechwälder in Bad Vöslau und der näheren Umgebung Schneidhofer, Leopold- Das Arbeitsjahr eines Berufspechers in Hernstein Ast, Hiltraud- Die Harzgenossenschaft Piesting Schneidhofer, Leopold- Die Harzgenossenschaft Piesting in den letzten Jahren ihres Bestandes Schreieck, Richard- Die Harzverwertung Hernstein

(Very detailed description of the Austrian Pinus Nigra ARNOLD, its forest-agronomic use and its use for resin-extraction; with description/ pictures of tools, trees, end-products etc.) .

Manndorff, Hemma Die Pecher und das Pecherland Herst. Abele-Druck, Baden;Broschüre hrsgg. im Eigenverlag, Baden bei Wien, Österreich, 1996; 42 pp. (recommended to read: brochure with vivid and detailed description of the profession and life-circumstances of "pitchmakers", the black-pine resin-producers of the area in the South of Vienna/ Austria)

Nowak, Bernd; Schulz, Bettina Tropische Früchte; Biologie, Verwendung, Anbau und Ernte BLV Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, München, Wien, Zürich; 1988; ISBN 3-405-15168-6; 239pp. (book on tropical fruits and its use/ cultivation)

PROSEA, "Plant Resources of South-East Asia," a foundation domiciled in Bogor/ Indonesia. It is an autonomous, non-profit, international agency governed by a Board of Trustees. (E-Prosea will appear in a separate pop-up window. Make sure a pop-up blocker NOT being ACITVE in your browser.)

The organization published the volumes below . These are available also as CD versions. In Germany, the volumes or the CDs are available via the "Fernleihe System" at the libraries of universities or bigger towns.

PROSEA 1: 'Pulses' PROSEA 2: 'Edible fruits and nuts' PROSEA 3: 'Dye and tannin-producing plants' PROSEA 4: 'Forages' PROSEA 5: 'Timber trees' PROSEA 6: 'Rattans' PROSEA 7: 'Bamboos' PROSEA 8: 'Vegetables' PROSEA 9: 'Plants yielding non-seed carbohydrates' PROSEA 10: 'Cereals' PROSEA 11: 'Auxiliary plants' PROSEA 12: 'Medicinal and poisonous plants' PROSEA 13: 'Spices' PROSEA 14: 'Vegetable oils and fats' PROSEA 15: 'Cryptogams' PROSEA 16: 'Stimulants' PROSEA 17: 'Fibre plants' PROSEA 18: 'Plants producing exudates' PROSEA 19: 'Essential-oil plants'

Scheuch, Dominik; Polk, Alexandra; Merth, Matthias Die Schwarzkiefer Die 1. Geige am Alpenostrand - Der Baum des Jahres 2000 Initiative "Rettet den Wald" ( Hrsg: Initiative Österreich 2025; Kuratorium "Rettet den Wald"; A-1080 Wien, Alserstraße 37/ 16; Jahr: 2000; 11pp.

Schröder, Rudolf Wirtschaftspflanzen der warmen Zonen Kosmos-Bibliothek/ Band 229; Kosmos - Gesellschaft der Naturfreunde; Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung W.Keller&Co.; Stuttgart;1961; 80pp. (Nice booklet on commercial plants of temperate and tropical zones)

La Limonaia del Castel Commune di Limone sul Garda, Provincia di Brescia (Information sheet, more information on the citron cultivations in the North of Italy see


Ashley, Clifford W.
Das Ashley Buch der Knoten (The Ashley Book of Knots)
Edition Maritim; Hamburg; 1993; 620 Seiten. (Doubleday&Comp., Inc; Garden City, New York 1944) (
Description of on 3854 knots, knots for kites included, the author spent over 10 years of his life for finding knots all over the world. It's the BIBLE of knots! There's nothing better on this subject!).

Barrett Timothy
Japanese Papermaking
Weatherhill; Tokyo, New York; 1922
(The best book on Japanese Papermaking, the Plants, the People, the Art etc.)

Bauer, Ernst
Denk dran; auf's Seil kommt's an!
Technisches Handbuch der Seiler, Segel- und Netzmacher. Aegis Verlag; Ulm; 1961
(Technical handbook(let) in German on ropemaking)

Beinlich, H.; Daxelmüller, Ch.; Vollrath, H.-J.; Wittstadt, K. (Hrsg.)
Magie des Wissens; Athanasius Kircher 1602-1680; Universalgelehrter, Sammler, Visionär Verlag J.H.Röll; Dettelbach; 2002; ISBN 3-89754-211-0
(on life and work of Athanasius Kircher, monk of "Society of Jesus", on the Musaeo Kircheriani. Written on the occation of an exhibition 1.10.-14.12.2002 at the Martin von Wagner University at Würzburg, Germany)

Brauen, Martin (Ethnographic Museum of Zurich University)
Bambus im alten Japan - Bamboo in old Japan
Kunst und Kultur an der Schwelle zur Moderne Arnoldsche Art Publishers (Arnoldsche Verlagsanstalt); Stuttgart; 2003; ISBN 3-89790-190-0
(English title: Bamboo in old Japan; the Hans Spörry Collection in the Ethnographic Museum of Zürich University; well illustrated book in German/ English on the famous collection of things made of bamboo)

Buisson, Dominique
Japanische Papierkunst
Éditions Terrail; Paris; 1991 (in Deutsch 1992) (on the Japanese art of making things of paper; also available in French and English(?))

Chladni; Ernst Florens Friedrich
Entdeckungen über die Theorie des Klangs
Weidmanns Erben & Reich, Leipzig; 1787 In: Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek. 1765-96. 1788, 81.Bd.,1.St., pp.137-140 (see online original articles) (Early work on acoustics; Chladni sound figures on round and square shaped plates; translations in English and French language exist.) See article on the sound figures and also an excellent recent book (by M.D.Waller)on the theme.

Chladni; Ernst Florens Friedrich
Die Akustik Breitkopf und Haertel; Leipzig; 1802 Edition Francaise: Traité d'Acoustique Edit. Courcier, Paris, 1809 (early work on acoustics, sound patterns on glass/ metal plates etc., translations in English and French language exist. See another good article on the generation of Chladni figures See also a short instruction (excerpt) how to generate the sound patterns of Chladni's original text (in German) Here's another good article from 1797 on generating Chladni's sound patterns (in German also)...

Chladni; Ernst Florens Friedrich
Neue Beyträge zur Akustik
Breitkopf und Härtel; Leipzig; 1817
(Detailed informations on generating Chladni sound figures on round and square shaped plates)

Chladni; Ernst Florens Friedrich
Ueber eine verunstaltete Nachricht von der bekannten Wetterharfe zu Basel
In: Annalen der Physik; Leipzig; 1825; pp.471-473
(see excerpt. Article on corrigenda concerning English articles on the "Giant-Weather-Harp")

Denhöfer, W. (Seilermeister in St.Louis, Mo.)
Das illustrirte Seilerbuch; Anleitung zur Herstellung gewöhnlicher Seilerwaaren, (...) Verlag von Otto Spamer, Leipzig; 2.Auflage, 1869; (172 pages.)
(on ropemaking, old wooden tools, techniques etc.)

Doolittle, Justus
The Social Life of the Chinese
With some account of their religious, governmental, educational, and business customs and opinions. Harperbrothers, Publishers, New-York, Franklin Square; 1865 Reprint in two volumes; Ch'eng-Wen Publishing Company, 1966 Taipei/ Taiwan
(On chinese customs, kiting day (pp70-71) at 9th of the nineth month etc.; by the way, contains a long article on the custom of opium smoking)

Dunkelberg, Klaus
Bambus - Bamboo
IL 31; Mitteilungen des Instituts für leichte Flächentragwerke; Universität Stuttgart Stuttgart 1985 (Texts both in English and German)
(Technical book on bamboo as building material, its material properties, tools, joints, general use etc)

Faraday, M.
On a peculiar class of acoustical figures; and on certain forms, assumed by groups of particles upon vibrating elastic surfaces.
In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1831; PII; Vol.121; pp. 299–340 plus plate. Deutsche Übersetzung: Über eine eigenthümliche Klasse akustischer Figuren, und über gewisse Formen, welche Gruppen von Theilchen auf schwingenden elastischen Flächen annehmen.
In: Annalen der Physik und Chemie; Bd. 102; St2., 1832; pp. 193-251 plus Tafel VI
(Detailed description of the figures on vibrating Chladni-plates formed by light dust particles and fluids on the spots of maximal vibration. See German online version)

Farrely, David
The Book of Bamboo
Sierra Club Books; San Francisco; 1984
(One of the best bamboo-books, I ever read! The bamboo kite is lifting more pleasure per pound than any other human excellent survey-book on 1000 and more bamboo things)

Fletcher, Neville H.; Rossing, Thomas D.
The Physics of Musical Instruments
Springer Verlag; New York, Berlin, Heidelberg; 2000; second edition; 756 pages.
(book on the theory (formulas etc.) of the subject)

Fujiwara, Sakuhei
On kites and Kite Strings
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan Nr. 29; 1910
(Article on the kite string as the limiting factor for the possible altitude of kites)

Gnanaharan, R.; Mosteiro, A.P.
Local Tools, Equipment and Technologies for Processing Bamboo & Rattan.
An illustrated manual. INBAR (International Network for Bamboo and Rattan) New Delhi, Beijing, Eindhoven.
Technical Report No.9; International Development Research Centre 1997, New Delhi, INDIA. ISBN 81-86247-17-3; (83 p.) See the online publication of the INBAR!!
(Good manual on tools and how to process bamboo and rattan, with bibliography and addresses for tools)

Gourou, Pierre
Les Industries Villageoises. Le Papier.
in: Les Paysans du Delta Tonkinois Publications de l'École Francaise d'Extrème Orient Paris, 1936, p. 496 etimage No.71
(Short description of Annamite (Vietnam) papermaking. See original text)

Hidalgo-Lopez, Oscar
Bamboo, the gift of the gods
Bogota,2003, ISBN 958-33-4298-X Part 1: The Bamboo Plant: The Plant; Bamboo Flowering; Taxonomy and Distribution of Bamboos in the World; Bamboo Ecology-Silviculture; Pests and Diseases in living and felled Bamboo

Part 2: Bamboo Properties: Physical-mechanical and chemical properties

Part 3: Bamboo Handicrafts. Manufacture of Bamboo Wares

Part 4: Bamboo treatments against Insects and Fungi - Rules for improving the natural durability of Bamboo

Part 5: Manufacture of single and Composite Materials derived from Bamboo: Single Bamboo Materials; Composite Material; Cement-based Composites reinforced with Bamboo Fibres

Part 6: Bamboo Construction Technologies: Some basic Rules for using Bamboo in Construction; House Construction-Footings; Bamboo Walls; Roof Structures;Prefabrication of Bamboo Houses.

Part 7: Construction of Bamboo Structures: Construction of Bamboo Scaffoldings (Knot-tying); Bamboo spatial Structures, Structures generated by natural and artificial deformation of living Culms; The Effect of Earthquake Forces on Bamboo Buildings

Part 8: The Bamboo Culture in the Americans and Asia: Traditional Bamboo Architecture in Asia

Part 9: Application of Bamboo in different Fields of Engineering:Aeronautics, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering; Electrical Engineering; Hydraulic Engineering; Nautical Technology; Mechanical Engineering; Textiles, Weapons

Part 10: Bamboo in the Field of Medicine: Ancient and Modern Uses of Bamboo in Medicine; Other Uses of Bamboo in Different Fields ,Bibliography and Index.

Himmelfarb, David (B.S., M.S.; Technologist and Master Ropemaker U.S.Navy Ropewalk)
The Technology of Cordage Fibres and Rope
Leonard Hill Books Limited; 9 Eden Street, n.W.1; London 1957 (370 pages + ill.)
(Most comprehensive work on "modern" ropemaking of natural fibres, finishing operations etc. and the early snythetic materials like Nylon, Dacron etc.)

Hopkin, Bart
Getting a Bigger Sound - Pickups and microphones for your Musical Instrument
Tuscon, Ariz. : See Sharp Press, 2003; 100pp ISBN: 1-884365-34-5
(Good (!) and helpful book on picking up your instrument's sound)

Hunter, Dard
Primitive Papermaking: an account of a voyage to the Pacific Islands in search of information, implements and specimens relating to the making and decorating of bark paper.
Chillicothe (OH), 1927, Mountain House Press
(On old techniques of papermaking spread out over all South East Asia)

Hunter, Dard
Papermaking: The History and Technology of an Ancient Craft.
1978 Dover, New York.

Jenny, Hans
Kymatik - Cymatics, Wellen und Schwingungen mit ihrer Struktur und Dynamik
Basilius Presse Basel, Baseler Druck und Verlagsanstalt; Base, 1967
(Nice pictured book in German and English on structure and dynamics of waves and vibration; 183 pages)

Koch, G. (Berlin, Germany) Mikronesier (Gilbert-Inseln, Nonouti), 1963
Herstellung einer Kokosfaserschnur (E 825/ 1965; 16mm, 9min, 96m, silent movie) Institut für den Wissenschaftlichen Film (IWF), Göttingen, Germany;1968 and Mikronesier (Gilbert-Inseln, Nonouti) Herstellen eines Kokosfaserseils (E826, 16mm, 8min, 85m, silent movie) (The 16mm b/w silent films of the Institute for the Scientific Film (IWF) are showing the process of fibremaking of coconuts and how to make a two-strand line from coconut fibers; showing the technique of rolling the strands on the bare tighs)

Kurz, Sulpiz
Bamboo and its use
Indian Forester, 1876; Vol.1, No.3; pp.219-269
(on bamboo and its use in daily life of asian people)

Lawrie, George
The Practical Ropemaker
Publisher : H.R. Carter Publications. 1948; 118 p. illustr. Book on rope making)

Liese, J.; Fest,W.
Richtige Arbeitsweise bei der Harzgewinnung
Aus der Reihe "Waldarbeit leicht gemacht", Arbeitsmerkhefte für Waldarbeiter. Hrsg. Oberforstmeister Müller-Thomas. Heft Nr.12, 1952; Neumann-Verlag, Radebeul 1; 61pp.
(Comprehensive booklet made for german woodworkers on the methods for rosin-extraction from pines)

Liese, Walter
Bamboo - Biology, Silvics, Properties, Utilization
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) Eschborn, 1985, 131pp.
(Good booklet in English on Bamboo and Rattan)

Liese, Walter; Kumar, Satish
Bamboo Preservation Compendium
(Technical Report 1; INBAR technical report 22) Centre for Indian Bamboo Resource and Technology (CIBART) 200, Jor Bagh, New Delhi, 110 003 INDIA; 2003; 231pp. ISBN: 81-901808-0-0 (best compendium of treating bamboo in order to prolong its wooden life...)

Mikesh, Robert
Japan's World War II Balloon Bomb Attacks on North America
Smithsonian Annals of Flight; No.9; Washington, D.C.; Smithsonian Press, 1973

Oesterle, Valentin
Handbuch für Seiler
Franz Huber; Offenburg/ Baden; 1930
(Informative book on ropemaking in German; the same Oesterle who invented photographing kites)

Piper, Jacqueline M.
Bamboo and Rattan
Oxford University Press; Singapore, Oxford, New York; 1992 (88 pages)
(Well illustrated book on Bamboo and Rattan, the plants and their utilization in artwork and craft)

Plischke, Hans
Der Fischdrachen
Veröffentlichungen des Städtischen Museums für Völkerkunde zu Leipzig, Heft 6., 46 Seiten, 2 Tafeln und 1 Karte. R.Voigtländer's Verlag, Leipzig 1922. (Read original text...)
(Best overview work on kites used for fishing in South East Asia and Polynesia etc., emnt. of the diff. plants, ways of making, etc.)

Porée-Maspero, Eveline
La Vie du Paysan Khmer
Éditions de l'Institut Bouddhique Phnom-Penh, Cambodia, 1969; 103 pages
(Nothing on kites but a nice book in French on the daily life of the Khmer farmer, his believes, customs etc.)

Scheminzky, Ferdinand
Die Welt des Schalles
Verlag "Das Bergland Buch"; Graz, Wien, Leipzig, Berlin; 1935
(The acoustic phenomenons of strings, flutes, resonance etc.)

Schnabl, Ursula
Vom Glück mit dem Pech, die traditionelle Nutzung und Gewinnung pflanzlicher Rohstoffe und Arbeitsmaterialien am Beispiel der österreichischen Harzgewinnnung. Diplomarbeit am Institut für Botanik der Universität für Bodenkultur; Wien, 2001
(best work on rosin-production I found so far!)

Schweissguth, P.
Notes sur les Jeux de Cerfs-Volants à Thailande
The Journal of the Thailand Research Society; Vol.34; Pt.I; Bangkok 4/ 1943 pp.1-33
(on the manufacturing and sport-flying of Thai-Kites. Special treatment of Bamboo with sugar syrup and ants etc.)

Schwieger, H.G.
Herstellung, Beurteilung, Verarbeitung Verlag PR Verlag, H.G.Schwieger; 1973; Wiesbaden, Gluckstraße 12
(on manufacturing modern paper, techniques etc.; with a second volume of euopean paper samples)

Spörry, Hans
Die Verwendung des Bambus in Japan.
Mittheilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Völkerkunde Ostasiens. Band 9, Teil2; Tokyo, 1903, pp120-145
(on the perfect use of Bamboo in Japan. See the 2003 exhibition cataloque of the bamboo collection in German/ English!!)

Temple, Robert, Kyle Greenville
China, Land of Discovery
Multimedia Publications (UK) ltd.1986 German translation: Das Land der Fliegenden Drachen Chinesische Erfindungen aus vier Jahrtausenden Gustav Lübber Verlag GmbH, Bergisch Gladbach, 1990 ISBN 3-7857-0576-X
(pp.81-84 on paper, 173-178 on kites and kiteflying)

Summer, Catherine C.
Hawaiian Cordage
Pacific Anthropological Records, Vol. 39 (129 pages) ISBN 0930897498
(detailed study of Bishop Museum cordage specimens with explanation of cordmaking techniques and different natural plant fibres; see an excerpt describing the technique of twisting a cord on the bare thigh)

Summit, Ginger; Widess, Jim
The Complete Book of Gourd Craft
Lark Books, Asheville, North Carolina USA, 1996 ISBN 0-937274-99-2
(Very good book on curing and processing gourds in artwork. I'm owing most of my gourd-knowledges to that book! Describes 55 decorative techniques with many of photos. See description at

Toshio Ito; Hirotsugu Komura
Kites, the Science and the Wonder
Japan Publications; Tokyo; 1983
(Nice scientific book on kite aerodynamics, the "ideal kite", its construction and properties)

Ventan, (Pater Fintanus Lindner, Bürgeln?)
Harpes Éoliennes
"Magasin Pittoresque" Paris, quai des Grands Augustins, 1845, (Année 13, pp.115-116)
(Description of the experiments of M. Ventan, Bâle; the continuation of the Gattoni-experiments) See ONLINE VERSION of Magasin Pittoresque!!!

Voigt, Johann Gottfried
Beytrag zu den Versuchen über die Klangfiguren schwingender Flächen
in Neues Journal der Physik, herausgegeben von D. Friedrich Albrecht Carl Gren, Professor zu Halle. Leipzig, bey Joh. Ambr. Barth. Band 3; 1796, 4.Heft.; pp.391-399 plus Tafel VII.
(See a copy of this unique article on the "how to's" of generating Chladni sound figures)

Waller, Mary Désiré
Chladni Figures, A Study in Symmetry
G. Bell and Sons ltd.; London; 1961
(Next to Chladni's original works THE most exciting piece of literature (163 pages) concerning all aspects of the figures/ patterns of sounding plates. The experiments were made using solid carbon dioxide instead of a violin bow for generating the vibrations...)

Warstat, Michael; Görne, Thomas
Studiotechnik; Hintergrund und Praxiswissen
Elektor Verlag GmbH; Aachen; 1994; 5. Auflage; 334 pages
(very detailed book on the studio-technic-secrets; DSP; MIDI; Companders; effects etc.)

Weber, Wolfgang
Nachschlagewerk für die Faser- und Drahtseilerei. Mit den Nebengebieten: Faser- und Seilprüfung, Maschinenkunde, Seilereieinrichtung und Seilereinormen Band 1 A-M, Aegis-Verlag, Ulm/ Donau, 1989. ISBN 3-87005-031-4 Weber, Wolfgang: Seilereilexikon . - Ulm/Donau : Aegis-Verl. Band 2 N - Z, Ausgabe: 1. Aufl., Erschienen: Ulm, Donau : Aegis, 2004, Umfang: 194 S.; ISBN: 3-87005-058-6 

Winkler, Klaus
Die Physik der Musikinstrumente
Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg; 1992; 194 pages (Verständliche Forschung) ISBN 3-86025-0698
(Nice book in German on the popular science of muscical (orchestral) instrument's physics)

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P.S.: Do YOU know some more literature on that theme? Please Mail to Kite Musical Instruments Thank YOU for mailing me! ...want to know more on aeolian instruments? See Kite Musical Instruments/ Aeolian Instruments index-page